Český Krumlov ( Czech Český Krumlov , German: Böhmisch Krummau ) is a city in the South Bohemian region of the Czech Republic . The municipality with extended powers and the administrative center of the Cesky Krumlov district . Located on the Vltava River. The historic city center in 1992 was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List .
|Czech Český Krumlov|
|History and Geography|
|Population||▼ 13 347 people ( 2012 )|
The construction of the city and the castle began in the first half of the 13th century , near a ford through the Vltava, through which an important trade route in Bohemia ran. The city is located on both banks of the Vltava River, forming a steep bend in this place. The first documented mention of the Krumlov castle dates back to 1240 . Initially, the city was owned by the feudal clan of Vitkovichi from Krumlov , and then the related clan of Vitkovichi from Rozmberk (Rosenberg) . Rosenbergs (in Czech - Rožmberkové, Rožmberki) have owned Krumlov since 1302 for about 300 years. The red rose from the family coat of arms of this kind is still part of the city coat of arms of Cesky Krumlov.
After the suppression of the Rozmberk clan (Rosenberg), the city was owned by the emperors Rudolph II (the crazy son of Rudolph Julius Caesar of Austria lived in Krumlov), Ferdinand II , the genus Eggenbergs, and finally the clan Schwarzenberg , who owned the castle until 1945 .
Already in the middle of the XIII century on the right bank of the Vltava there was a settlement, the inhabitants of which were immigrants from Bavaria and Austria . A settlement called Latrán also appeared on the left bank of the Vltava a little later (the Latran district is currently part of the historical center of the city, protected as a World Cultural Heritage Site ). Both settlements in 1347 were connected by a bridge and formed a city. In 1336, a city council was formed in Krumlov, at which time crafts and trade were developed in the city, the fortifications of the city were strengthened by the construction of a new city wall.
In the 20s of the 15th century, as a result of the reform of city government, a Purmmister was put at the head of the city, who headed the city council (parliament). For one month, one of the members of the city council held the post of purmmister in order of priority. The post of urban burmister , who performed police and judicial functions, was also introduced. In addition, a small city council was established, whose members were called city foremen. As a rule, only wealthy citizens were elected to the city government. In 1494, Krumlov received the status and privileges of the royal city. The mining of silver in the surrounding mines gave a new impetus to the development of the city's economy and trade. At the end of the 15th century, the Krumlov Castle, originally built in the Gothic style, was rebuilt by Italian architects Antonio Ericer and Balthazar Maggi into a representative Renaissance castle.
The last owner of the castle from the Rozmberk clan was forced to sell it in 1602 due to accumulated debts to Emperor Rudolf II .
During the Thirty Years War, the city was looted several times. At the end of the war, many secular and religious buildings were rebuilt in the Baroque style .
The city became part of the Austrian Empire in 1806 and Austria-Hungary in 1866 . In 1910, 8,662 people lived in the city, including 7,367 Germans and 1,265 Czechs. In 1918, Czech troops occupied the city, and it remained part of Czechoslovakia until 1938 . In the period from 1938 to 1945 , was annexed by Nazi Germany . After World War II, the German-speaking population was deported to Austria and West Germany , and the city again became part of Czechoslovakia. During the communist regime, Krumlov deteriorated and fell into disrepair, but after the velvet revolution it was more restored and is now one of the most popular tourist centers in the Czech Republic.
Attractions and Tourism
- The historic city center is a UNESCO World Heritage Site .
- Krumlov Castle is the second largest castle in the Czech Republic after Prague Castle , the total area of the castle's structures (with a park) is 10 hectares. Most of the buildings included in the castle complex were built from the XIV to XVII century . The prevailing architectural styles are Gothic , Renaissance and Baroque .
- The raincoat bridge was built in 1767 and is a three-story transition between the residential part of the castle, the garden and the theater.
- Catholic church of St. Vitus - was laid in 1340 in the Gothic style , rebuilt in 1407-1439, painted with frescoes of the 15th century, the main altar was reconstructed in 1673-1643 in the Baroque style .
- Church of God’s body (XV century),
- Catholic church and monastery of Minorites (XIV — XVII century),
- Town Hall on the main square of the historic center of Krumlov (dated 1580).
- The Wax Museum.
- The theater where the auditorium rotates inside the ring stage
In the castle of Krumlov there is a theater made in the Baroque style, completed in 1766 , with original mechanisms, stands and decorations. Because of its age, the theater is used for performances only three times a year.
Vltava, flowing through the city, is a popular center for water sports, in particular, canoeing .
Ten kilometers from the city is one of the oldest monasteries in Bohemia, the Golden Crown.
In 2004 - 2005, the city hosted part of the filming of the film "Hostel"
- Cesky Krumlov is the birthplace of the glutton-hungry miller Baloun, a character in the cult novel The Adventures of the Good Soldier Schweik .
- The medieval illustrated manuscript “ Liber depictus ” (or “Krumlovsky illustrated codex”) was created in the minority monastery of the city.
- Since 1986, a five-petal rose festival has been held - a medieval carnival.
- The famous Austrian expressionist painter Egon Schiele repeatedly depicted the wonderful city landscapes of Krumau (Cesky Krumlov).
- Hautzenberg , Germany
- Miami , USA
- Vöcklabruck , Austria
- Sloven-Hradec , Slovenia
- San Gimignano , Italy
- Llanwrtyd Wells, UK
- Cesky Krumlov. - Ceske Budejovice, 2002. ISBN 80-86141-39-X