Khanty ( self-name - hanti , hande , kantek, as khojat ; Russian. Obsolete. Ostyaki ) - a small indigenous Ugric people living in the north of Western Siberia , mainly in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug . The self-designation As Khoyat means Ob people .
|Abundance and area|
Russia : 30 943 (2010)  , 28 678 (2002) 
Kazakhstan : 429 (2009 census) 
|Tongue||Khanty , Russian|
|Religion||shamanism , animism , Orthodoxy|
|Included in||Ugric peoples|
Hante self- designation means man . In Russian, to designate representatives of the people, there are words: inmany h. Khanty (persecuted); at units including the Khanty (zh.rod) , as well as the Khanty (unshakable) to designate a man or woman. Adjectives Khanty and (immutable) Khanty  .
Abundance and resettlement
Three ethnographic groups of Khanty are distinguished: northern, southern and eastern; moreover, the southern (Irtysh) Khanty mixed with the Russian and Tatar populations  . The encyclopedic dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron , published in the late XIX - early XX centuries, noted that the Ostyaks (Khanty) -
Ugro-Finnish tribe living along the Ob, Irtysh and their tributaries (Kond, Vasyugan and others), in the Tobolsk province and in the Narym district of the Tomsk province. It is divided into three groups: the northern Ostyaks - in the Berezovsky district, the eastern - in the Surgut and Narymsky (along the Vasyugan river) and the south-western or Irtysh - in the northern part of the Tobolsk district, along the banks of the Ob, Irtysh, Konda, etc. [ 9]
According to the 2002 census, the number of Khanty in Russia is 28,678, of which 59.7% live in the Khanty-Mansiysk District , 30.5% in the Yamal-Nenets District , 3.0% in the Tomsk Region , 3.0 % - in the Tyumen region without Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug , 0.3% - in the Komi Republic . According to the 2010 census, the number of Khanty increased to 30,943 people, of which 61.6% live in the Khanty-Mansiysk District , 30.7% in the Yamal-Nenets District , 2.3% in the Tyumen Region without the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug , 2.3% - in the Tomsk region , 1.4% - in the Novosibirsk region .
- Khanty population dynamics according to censuses
|1926 ||1939 ||1959 ||1970 ||1979 ||1989 ||2002 ||2010 |
The ancestors of the Khanty migrated from the south to the lower Ob and settled in the territory of the modern Khanty-Mansiysk and southern regions of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug , and from the end of the 1st millennium, based on a mixture of Aboriginal and alien Ugric tribes, Khanty ethnogenesis ( Ust-Poluya culture ) began  .
The Khanty people called themselves mostly because of the river, for example, Kondikhou ï = “people of Konda”, As-jah = “people of the Ob” and from the latter, the Russian name for the Khanty, probably, was Ostyaks , although, according to other researchers, the Russians borrow the word "ostyak" from the Tatar "ushtyak" = barbarian  . Samoyeds (the common name for the Nenets , Ents , Nganasans , Selkups and the now extinct Sayan Samoyeds in pre-revolutionary Russia) called the Khanty Yaran or Yargan  (a word close to the Irtysh-Khanty Yar - “alien”)  .
Traditional crafts are fishing , hunting and reindeer husbandry . The traditional religion is shamanism and Orthodoxy (from the 16th century ).
Belong to the Ural race  .
Anthropology and Genetics
The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary gave the following description of the Khanty  :
Ostyaks of medium, even lower than average height (156-160 cm), with black or brown (rarely blond), usually straight, long hair (which are worn either loose or braided), dark eyes, a liquid beard, dark-skinned skin color, , a flat-faced face, somewhat prominent cheekbones, thick lips and a short, depressed at the root, wide and upturned nose at the end. In general, the type is somewhat reminiscent of the Mongolian, but the eyes are correctly cut and the skull is often narrow and long (dolicho- or sub-dichiocephalic). All this gives the Ostyaks a special imprint, and some are inclined to see in them the remains of a special ancient race that once inhabited part of Europe. Women are short and more Mongol-like than men.
Khanty (like Mansi ) are characterized by the following set of features:
- short stature (less than 160 cm on average for men),
- general gracility (miniature structure),
- a narrow head , meso- or dolichokephalic in shape and low in height,
- straight soft black or brown hair
- dark or mixed eyes
- the percentage of the Mongolian fold of the eyelid covering the lacrimal tubercle ( epicanthus ) noticeably varying in groups,
- a face of various shapes of medium height, with a noticeable flatness and stiffness,
- the nose is slightly or medium protruding, mostly medium in width, mainly with a straight or concave nasal bridge, with a raised tip and base,
- weakened beard growth,
- relatively wide mouth
- small lip thickness
- mid-protruding or running chin  .
According to V.N. Kharkov, the Khanty and Mansi are dominated by the Y-chromosome haplogroup N1b - 57%, in second place is the haplogroup Q1a3 - 21%. Then come the haplogroups R1a - 14% and N1c1 - 7.1%, R1b - 0.9%  .
The Khanty language (obsolete name Ostyak language ) together with Mansi and Hungarian constitute the so-called Ugric group of the Uralic language family . The Khanty language is known for its extraordinary dialectal fragmentation, in connection with which the western group — the Obdorsk, Obst and Irtysh dialects, and the eastern group — the Surgut and Vakh-Vasyugan dialects, which, in turn, are divided into 13 dialects , stand out.
Since the 19th century, serious work has taken place on the Ostyak (Khanty) language. So, in 1849 A. Castren published a brief grammar and a dictionary, and in 1926 - Paasonen's dictionary  . In 1931, the Ostyak primer P. E. Khatanzeeva (“Hanti knijga”) was published, but a number of errors were made during its compilation, in particular the wrong choice of dialect, unreasonable principles of transcription and methodological errors, due to which the primer did not receive wide distribution. In the same year, the Scientific and Research Association of the Institutions of the Peoples of the North at the Central Executive Committee of the USSR developed a preliminary draft of the Ostyak alphabet, and in 1933 the Ostyak primer was issued in the Kazym dialect  . In 1950, at the All-Union meeting on the development of literary languages of the peoples of the Far North, it was decided to create writing for three more Khanty dialects: Wakhovsky, Surgut and Shuryshkarsky  .
On November 1, 1957, the first Khanty-language newspaper was published in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District under the name Lenin Pant Khuvat (On the Lenin Road)  , which in 1991 was divided into the Khanty Khanty Yasang and the Mansi Luima Seripos . In Khanty, the newspaper “ Luh Avt ” is also published.
On August 10, 1989, the public organization “ Saving Ugra ” was formed, one of the main tasks of which is to consolidate the indigenous peoples of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, including preserving ethnic identity, lifestyle, culture of both Khanty, Mansi and Nenets  .
Ethno-rock band H-Ural since 2009 performs songs in Shuryshkarsky, Kazymsky and Central Ob dialects Khanty language. Another ethnic rock group, Shadow of the Emigrant, performs songs in the Pim dialect of the Khanty language (eastern Khanty).
In the past, the Khanty had an air burial rite .
Girls in costumes
Khanty before the plague near Lake Numto
Children near the sled
Women at the Numsang Yoh Ethnocultural Camp
- Kazym uprising
- Peoples of the Arctic
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