The Chechen Republic ( Chech. Nokhchiyn Republic, Nokhchiychoch ) - a subject of the Russian Federation , a republic in its composition; the wording according to the Constitution of the Czech Republic is a democratic rule of law within the Russian Federation. Located in the eastern part of the North Caucasus (North-East Caucasus ). Area - 16 165 km² [comm. 1] , from north to south it extends approximately 170 km, from west to east - approximately 100 km. It borders with the following subjects of the Russian Federation: in the west - with Ingushetia , in the north-west - with North Ossetia and the Stavropol Territory , in the north-east, east and southeast - with Dagestan ; in the south-west of the Czech Republic it borders with an independent state - Georgia .
|The subject of the Russian Federation|
|Head of the Republic||R. A. Kadyrov|
|Speaker of Parliament||M. Kh. Daudov |
|Prime Minister||M. M. Khuchiev|
|History and Geography|
|Square||16 165 km² ( 76th place )|
178.9  billion rubles. ( 2017 )
|Population||↗ 1 456 951  people ( 2019 ) ( 33rd place )|
|Density||93.11 people / km²|
|State languages||Chechen , Russian|
|ISO 3166-2 Code|
|Code of the subject of the Russian Federation||20|
The population is more than 1.4 million people, the capital is Grozny (more than 290 thousand people). Official languages: Chechen and Russian . Time zone MSC , the offset relative to UTC is +3: 00. It is part of the North Caucasus Federal District and is part of the North Caucasus Economic Region. It is divided into 17 municipal districts (2 of them are formally recreated, but actually not organized) and 2 urban districts . Head of the Republic R. A. Kadyrov (since 2007), Chairman of the Parliament M. Kh. Daudov (since 2015), Chairman of the Government M. M. Khuchiev (since 2018).
According to changes in the Constitution of the Russian Federation - Russia (RSFSR) in 1978, it was established on January 9, 1993  .After the hostilities in the Chechen Republic, a referendum was held at which, on March 23, 2003, the majority voted in favor of being a part of the Russian Federation.
Geomorphologically , three large structures (from north to south) are distinguished in the territory of the Chechen Republic - Ciscaucasia , Foothills and the Greater Caucasus ; in a more specific sense, according to the nature of the relief, the territory of the republic is divided into four parts - the Tersko-Kuma lowland , the Tersko-Sunzhenskaya Upland , the Chechen plain and Mountain Chechnya  .
The northern part of the Chechen Republic - from the northern border of the republic to the Terek river valley - is a plain that is the southern component of the Tersko-Kum Lowland (here lies the southern part of the Nogai steppe ), which, in turn, is part of the vast Ciscaucasia plain . Plane [comm. 2] gradually decreases to the east - to the Caspian lowland , on which the northeast corner of the republic “enters” a little (this section is below sea level). In the south of the Tersko- Kumsk lowland, the Pritersky sand massif is located, ridged sands prevail in its relief, stretching in the latitudinal direction, coinciding with the prevailing winds    .
To the south of the Terek valley, the greater part of the Tersko-Sunzhenskaya Upland, consisting of two anticlinal folds of low ridges stretching in the latitudinal direction - Terskoye and Sunzhensky (separated by a narrow Alkhanchurt valley ) passes through the territory of the Czech Republic. The eastern part of the Tersky ridge is distinguished into a separate Bragunsky ridge and, further east, into the Gudermes ridge ; the eastern part of the Sunzhensky ridge is distinguished into a separate Grozny ridge . All ranges have soft and rounded outlines   .
Between the Tersko-Sunzhenskaya Upland and the front ranges of the Caucasus lies the fertile Chechen Plain - the most densely populated and developed territory of the Chechen Republic (it is part of the Tersko-Sunzhenskaya Plain , in the west of which, outside the Chechen Republic, the Ossetian / Ingush plain is distinguished). The plain gradually decreases in the northeast direction from 350 m to 100 m, its surface is dissected by the valleys of numerous rivers crossing it in the meridional direction; insignificant forest areas remained in depressions and river valleys   .
The southern part of the Chechen Republic, the so-called Mountain Chechnya, lies on the site of the northern slope of the Greater Caucasus system (the mountainous country is the Caucasus Mountains ). It is characterized by the same orographic separation as the entire northern slope of the Caucasus — four main ranges (in addition to many local mountain branches) stretching parallel to the north of the Greater Caucasus Range ; the first three are the Advanced Ranges - Forested (known in the Chechen Republic as the Black Mountains ), Pasture and Rocky . The southern border of the republic runs along the segment of the fourth parallel ridge - Bokovoy (in the Czech Republic it coincides with the state border of the Russian Federation, there is the highest peak of the East Caucasus - Tebulosmta , 4492 m), and also along the small Andean ridge - the spur of the Greater Caucasus ridge in a northeast direction (border of the Czech Republic with Dagestan). Ranges in many places are cut by deep gorges with streams of turbulent rivers   .
Natural areas and climate
A relatively small republic is distinguished by a variety of natural zones : from north to south the landscape is replaced by a semi-desert on the steppe and, closer to the mountains, forest-steppe ; south begins the mountain forest belt , beyond the forest border into the mountain meadow zone , and further south are mountain ranges rising above the snow line - the nival belt , the peaks here are covered with glaciers and eternal snows. The vertical zonality, expressed by the change of natural landscapes on the mountain slopes from the foot to the peaks, is a characteristic feature for similar mountain regions (the reason is a change in air temperature, humidity, precipitation, etc.)    .
The semi-desert covers the Tersko-Kum lowland, with the exception of its southern part, adjacent to the valley of the Terek River. The climate here is arid (300-350 mm of precipitation per year), summers are hot and sultry (average monthly July temperature + 24— + 25 ° C), dry winds blowing from Kazakhstan are characteristic. High summer temperatures and high dryness of the air lead to the fact that the evaporation of moisture exceeds the amount of precipitation. Winter is not snowy, the duration is about four months (average January temperature −3—3.5 ° C). When cold air masses invade from the north or northeast, snowstorms occur with drifts and frosts down to −32 ° C. Often after thaws, frost sets in, which leads to icy weather  .
The steppe zone includes the left bank of the Terek, the eastern part of the Tersko-Sunzhenskaya Upland and the northern outskirts of the Chechen Plain. Precipitation is 400-450 mm a year, summers are hot - the average July temperature is + 23— +24 ° C. Winters are mild, the average January temperature is −3.5—4 ° C  .
The forest-steppe zone includes a large part of the Chechen plain and the western part of the Tersko-Sunzhenskaya Upland. Precipitation is about 500-600 mm per year, the increase in rainfall in the forest-steppe compared with the steppe zone is explained by the close proximity of the mountains. The temperature here is significantly affected by the different heights of individual sections above sea level, the average July temperature is + 21 ... + 23 ° C, and January –4–5 ° C  .
The mountain forest zone includes the Forest Range and the lower parts of the northern slopes of the Pasture, Rocky and Lateral ridges. The upper boundary of the belt is 1800 m, in some places it rises to 2000–2200 m. The climate of this zone varies depending on the height, it can be conditionally divided into two zones: the lower (up to 1200 m) and the upper (1200–1800 m). Precipitation in the lower zone is from 600 to 900 mm per year, the average July temperatures range from +18 ° C to +22 ° C, and January temperatures from −1 ° C to −12 ° C. In the upper zone of precipitation there is more than 900 mm per year, the temperature in July is +18 ° C, in January –12 ° C  .
The zone of mountain meadows is divided into three bands: subalpine (1800–2700 m), alpine (2700–3200 m) and subnival (3200–3800 m). The climate in this zone is moderately cold, the summers are cool, and precipitation is 700-800 mm per year. The average July temperature at the lower border of the zone is +14 ° C, and at the upper - +4 ° C. Winter is long and snowy. In the subalpine zone, there is more precipitation than in the alpine, but in the subalpine zone there are places (on the southern slope of the Skalisty and Andean ranges), where less than 500 mm of precipitation falls  .
In the territory of the Czech Republic, the nival zone includes the peaks of the Lateral Range. This is an area of snow and glaciation, the climate is cold, often strong winds blowing, causing blizzards . Precipitation falls mainly in the form of snow. More solid precipitation falls annually than is consumed, and excess snow leaves the zone in the form of avalanches or glaciers. The average annual temperature is about 0 ° C  .
Soils and minerals
Light chestnut soils are common for the Tersko-Kuma lowland, in particular for the Pritersky sandy massif, which, due to the hot climate and dry winds, are characterized by severe desiccation. Soils here are at different stages of development and are present in various transitional forms - from loose sand , almost unaffected by soil formation processes, to deeply humus-formed sandy soils. Their mechanical composition plays an important role: clay soils in arid climates are subject to salinization (soils and vegetation similar to the desert type are usually formed on them), and sandy salinity is almost not observed (soils and vegetation are closer to the steppe type). In the eastern part, near the border with Dagestan, there are light chestnut solonetzic soils with spots of solonchaks , and along the old Terek - meadow and meadow-bog solonetzic soils  .
Soils on the plains are mostly meadow . In more elevated areas - chernozems , in river valleys - swamp-meadow, in the mountains - mountain-forest and mountain-meadow.
- There are about 30 oil and gas fields in the republic, mainly within the Tersky and Sunzhensky ranges.
- Building materials and raw materials for their production (cement marls, limestones, gypsum, sandstones, mineral paints).
- Mineral springs (resort Sernovodsk ).
Fauna and vegetation
Semi desert. According to the composition of plant forms, it belongs to the transition zone from the steppes of southern Eastern Europe to the deserts of Central Asia . In summer, the vegetation burns out periodically, which is adversely affected by high temperature and the drying winds of the dry wind. The grass cover is very sparse, desert drought - tolerant shrubs grow - wormwood , kohiya and others, camel spines , sand wormwood , sand oats and others are found from representatives of Central Asian deserts, and turfgrasses such as fescue , feather grass , and others are also typical for the steppes. In the eastern part of the semi-desert of the Chechen Republic on saline soils, wormwood-solyanka groups were formed: wormwood, camphorosmos , arch , various hodgepodge 
The fauna of the mountain forests of Chechnya is rich and diverse. The largest beast is a bear that lives in dense forests and narrow rocky gorges littered with a windbreak. At the edges and forest glades can be found roe deer. There are many wild boars in the forests. A forest cat lives in deaf beams, occasionally a lynx is found; in the mountain forests live the wolf, fox, hare, deer, chamois, fallow deer, pine marten and stone, jackal, badger, weasel. In the mountain forests there are a lot of birds. Finches, scallops, tits, bullfinches, nuthatch, woodpeckers, blackbirds, jays, owls live here  .
- Jill jol
- Aksai ,
- Shalazha ,
- Nope ,
- Chemulga .
The rivers in the republic are distributed unevenly. The mountainous part has a dense branched river network; there are no rivers on the Tersko-Sunzhenskaya Upland and in the areas north of the Terek River. Almost all rivers of Chechnya belong to the Terek system. The exceptions are Aksai, Yaman-Su, Yaryk-Su, which belong to the Aktash river system.
For irrigation and irrigation of the Nogai steppe and the Black lands, the Tersko-Kumsky canal was built.
- Kezenoyam Lake ( Chech. K'vozanan Iam , Chech. Kleznoy-lam ) ( Vedensky district ) - the largest and deepest lake in the North Caucasus ;
- Galanchezh Lake ( Chech. Galayn-Iam ) - Galanoch region ;
- Lake Gekhi-Am ( Chech. Gikhtoy-Iam ) - Achkhoy-Martan district;
- Lake Chentii-am ( Chech. Chantiy-Iam ) - Itum-Kalinsky district ;
- Lake Urgyuhkhoi-am ( Chech. Iurgyuhkhoi-Iam ) - Shatoi district ;
- Cherkasskoye Lake - Shelkovsky district ;
- Big Lake - Shelkovsky district;
- Salt Lake - Shelkovskoy district;
- Lake Chechen - Naursky district ;
- Kapustino Lake - Naursky District;
- Mayorskoe Lake - Naursky District;
- Generalskoye Lake - Naursky District;
- Lake Bezinom ( Chech. Bezik-Iam ) - Shatoi district;
- Amga Lake ( Chech. I amga ) - Sharoy district .
- Argun waterfalls
- Sharo-Argun waterfalls
- Gegha waterfalls
- Aksai waterfalls
- Hulhuloy Falls
Four thousandth peaks
- Tebulosmta ( Chech. Tuyli-lam, Dakieh court, Dakieh lam  ) - 4493 m
- Diklosmta ( Chech. Duhalha court  ) - 4285 m
- Komito ( Chech. Dottach-Korta  ) - 4262 m
- Donosmta ( Chech. Donoin Lam  ) - 4174 m
- Maistismta ( Chech. Mӏaystoin-Lam  ) - 4082 m
Mountains of Chechnya
Tersko-Kumskaya lowland (semi-desert). To combat summer drought, shelterbelts are created here, forests are grown on sand, irrigation and watering canals are built. In winter, a small snow cover allows you to keep flocks of sheep on the pasture during the winter. Sheep, raking loose snow, easily get their own food. But snow drifts and icy conditions are a scourge for cattle breeders. In order to avoid the death of sheep from a non-feed, insurance stocks of feed are created on winter pastures  .
The period after the collapse of the USSR
The “Chechen revolution” of 1991 and the declaration of independence. The collapse of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
After the beginning of perestroika in the mid-1980s, national movements intensified in many republics of the USSR (including Chechnya-Ingushetia). In November 1990, the First Chechen National Congress was held in Grozny, at which he was elected the Executive Committee of the National Congress of the Chechen People (OKCHN). The OKCHN set as its goal the withdrawal of Chechnya not only from the RSFSR , but also from the USSR . It was headed by Major General of the Soviet Air Force Dzhokhar Dudaev . A conflict began between the OKCHN and the official authorities of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic led by Doku Zavgaev . June 8, 1991 OKCHN announces the deposition of the Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and proclaims the independent Chechen Republic of Nokhchi-cho  . Dual power has actually developed in the republic.
During the August coup of 1991, the Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, according to some sources, supported the State Emergency Committee . Armed supporters of the OKCHN captured the television center on August 22, and later the main administrative buildings in Grozny (including the building of the republican KGB ). On September 6, under pressure from OKCHN supporters, Doku Zavgaev was forced to sign a letter of resignation, and on September 15, the Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic dissolved. OKCHN leaders announced the transfer of supreme power to them  and canceled the effect of Russian laws and the Constitution of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
On October 1, 1991, by the decision of the Chairman of the Provisional Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Hussein Akhmadov, the Chechen-Ingush Republic was divided into the independent Chechen Republic of Nokhchi-cho and the Ingush Autonomous Republic as part of the RSFSR. However, after 4 days, most members of the Air Force overturned this decision of their chairman  .
On October 27, 1991, the President of the Chechen Republic, Nokhchi-cho, was elected - Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the OKCHN, became it  . On November 2, 1991, by the Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR, these elections were declared illegal  .
On November 7, 1991, President of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin issued a Decree on the introduction of a state of emergency in the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In response, Dudayev announced the introduction of martial law and ordered the creation of armed self-defense units. The next day, November 9, transport aircraft with Russian military personnel landed at Khankala airport, but they were blocked by armed Dudaevans. The Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus announced support for Chechnya. The Russian government had to negotiate with the separatists and get the withdrawal of the troops blocked in Khankala. Russian troops deployed in Chechnya were withdrawn, and most of the weapons, including tanks and aircraft , were transferred to the separatists  .
After the above events, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR actually ceased to exist  . On June 4, 1992, the Supreme Council of Russia adopted the Law “On the Formation of the Ingush Republic as part of the Russian Federation”  , according to which Chechen-Ingushetia was divided into Chechnya and Ingushetia. The creation of new republics was submitted for approval by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation  . On December 10, 1992, the Congress of People's Deputies, by its resolution, approved the formation of the Chechen Republic  and amended the Constitution of the RSFSR 1978 : Chechen-Ingushetia was divided into the Ingush Republic and the Chechen Republic  (the border between which remained unapproved until September 2018 years  ). This law was published on December 29, 1992 in Rossiyskaya Gazeta  and entered into force on January 9, 1993 after 10 days from the date of its official publication  .
The period of actual independence. The formation of the anti-Dudaev opposition
After independence, Chechnya became a de facto independent republic, but it was not recognized by any state in the world, including Russia. The republic had its own state symbols - flag , coat of arms and anthem , as well as the government , parliament , secular courts . It was supposed to create a small armed forces and its own currency - nahara .
In 1992, a new Constitution was adopted, according to which Chechnya was an independent secular state, and in 1994 the Chechen Republic of Nokhchi-cho was renamed the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria  .
In reality, the new state system was extremely inefficient. The economy was completely criminalized, criminal structures were doing business on hostage taking, drug trafficking, oil theft, and the slave trade flourished in the republic. Ethnic cleansing was also carried out, leading to the exodus of the entire non-Chechen (primarily Russian) population from the republic  .
In 1993-1994, opposition began to form in the regime of Dzhokhar Dudaev. In December 1993, the Provisional Council of the Chechen Republic (HCRR) emerged, proclaiming itself the only legitimate authority and aiming at the armed overthrow of Dudaev  . HRChR was actively supported by Russia. In November 1994, the combined Armed Forces of the Chechen Republic of Chechen Republic, supported by armored vehicles controlled by the recruited FSK Russian troops, entered Grozny , but were defeated. Most Russian troops were captured. This unsuccessful assault was a prologue to the outbreak of widespread conflict.
First Chechen war
After an unsuccessful assault on Grozny by the forces of the Provisional Council, on November 30, 1994, President of Russia Boris Yeltsin signed a decree "On measures to restore constitutionality and the rule of law in the Chechen Republic," which was the actual start of the war. On December 11, 1994, units of Russian troops entered Chechnya, advancing from three directions - from Ingushetia , the Stavropol Territory, and Dagestan. The initial goal was to capture the capital of Chechnya - the city of Grozny, in which the main forces of the separatists were concentrated. The assault began on December 31; fierce street fighting ensued in the city, in which both sides suffered heavy losses. Russian troops were finally able to take the city only by March 1995. Separatist detachments retreated to the southern mountainous regions of the republic, where active resistance continued. In Grozny, the pro-Russian administration of Chechnya was formed, headed by Doku Zavgaev .
On June 14, 1995, militants of the Chechen field commander Shamil Basayev seized a hospital in the city of Budennovsk ( Stavropol Territory ) with a demand to withdraw Russian troops from Chechnya and end the war. As a result, the terrorists released the hostages and freely returned to Chechnya.
On January 9, 1996, fighters of Salman Raduyev attacked the Russian city of Kizlyar . The original goal of the terrorists was to eliminate the helicopter base, but then they put forward demands to immediately end the war and withdraw Russian troops from Chechnya. Under the guise of a "human shield" from the hostages, the militants left Kizlyar in Pervomaiskoye , where they were blocked by Russian troops. The assault on Pervomaisky began, but the militants, under cover of night, managed to break into Chechnya.
On April 21, in the area of the Chechen village of Gekhi-Chu , President of CRI Dzhokhar Dudayev was killed by an air attack.
On August 6, militant units entered Grozny, as well as Argun and Gudermes . As a result of the fighting, Russian troops lost control of the city and were forced to start armistice negotiations.
On August 31, 1996, a peace agreement was signed by the representative of Russia ( Alexander Lebed ) and the representative of Ichkeria ( Aslan Maskhadov ) in the Russian city of Khasavyurt , according to which Russian troops were withdrawn from Chechnya, and the decision on the status of the republic was postponed for five years (until December 31, 2001 ) Chechnya has again become a de facto independent but unrecognized state .
After the death of Dudayev, Zelimkhan Yandarbiev became the interim president. In the presidential election in January 1997, Aslan Maskhadov became President of the CRI . However, there was no peace and tranquility in the republic. The real power belonged to the field commanders , who divided the whole republic into zones of influence, and the government actually controlled only the city of Grozny, which was turned into ruins during the fighting. Destroyed cities and villages were not restored, the economy remained criminalized. Maskhadov tried to put things in order by introducing Sharia rule, but later it turned into open unrest in Gudermes , when the Sharia patrol defeated an alcohol trading stall. Meanwhile, the influence of Wahhabism spread by mercenaries from Arab countries was growing in the republic.
Second Chechen War
On September 30, 1999, after the invasion of militants in Dagestan, Russian troops entered Chechnya and occupied the plains of the plains of the republic, October 18 crossing the Terek River. On December 17, a large airborne landing force was landed near the Chechen section of the Russian state border , thus blocking the communication of the CRI with Georgia.
December 26 began a new assault on Grozny. In character, it was significantly different from the previous assault of 1994 - 1995 - armored vehicles vulnerable to street battles were not introduced into the city; instead, massive artillery and air strikes were used. On January 30, 2000, militants broke through the minefields from the city, suffering heavy losses, and on February 6, Grozny was finally taken by Russian troops. On February 22-29, the battle for the Shatoy district center , the last major separatist base, began. On February 28, a large detachment of Khattab militants attempted to break through the Argun Gorge . In a battle at an altitude of 776, a two thousandth detachment of militants opposed ninety Russian paratroopers; As a result, the height was occupied by the militants. On March 7, 2000, a detachment of fighters from the Chechen field commander Ruslan Gelayev who retreated from Grozny was blocked in the village of Komsomolskoye. The village was taken by Russian troops , but Gelaev with part of the militants still managed to escape to the Pankisi Gorge of Georgia.
By the end of March 2000, the active phase of the hostilities ended and the militants switched to the tactics of guerrilla warfare, and then to the tactics of an offensive operation .
On April 15, 2009, the counter-terrorism operation was lifted.
In the Russian Federation
Administration of Akhmat Kadyrov
With the outbreak of the Second Chechen War, the pro-Russian administration of the Chechen Republic was formed. It was headed by Mufti Akhmat Kadyrov , who, after the rooting of Wahhabism in 1997 in Chechnya by international emissaries, spoke out against the direction, militarization of the republic and human trafficking , not characteristic of traditional Islam and the mentality of the Chechen people. On July 25, 1998, on his initiative, a Congress of Muslims of the North Caucasus was held, the participants of which supported the Mufti of Chechnya, sharply condemning Wahhabism in the form of religious extremism. The active and consistent actions of A. Kadyrov against Wahhabism led to the fact that the majority of the Muslim population of Chechnya did not accept this ideology  . In order to unite and organize Chechen society for the restoration and development of the republic, to end hostilities, the head of the provisional administration of the Chechen Republic, by presidential decree on June 12, 2000, appointed A. Kadyrov, who had the necessary authority among residents, elders and the clergy, who proposed a peaceful program the revival of the republic, which was agreed with the President and the Government of Russia, having received the support of the Chechen community - government bodies, local self-government, leaders of Chechen social institutions. Initiative support was provided to law enforcement agencies by local communities to form a negative opinion on illegal armed groups and militants  .
|We will do, build, create and conduct an active struggle against enemies. There will be no mercyA. A. Kadyrov |
In 2003, a new Constitution of the republic was adopted, according to which Chechnya was a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, it was preceded by the development of five projects, of which as a result they amounted to one submitted to a national referendum on March 23, 2003, in which 90% of the population participated (509,796 people 489 257 [95.97%] voted for the adoption of the Constitution  ), which indicates the full support of the population for action Kadyrov to resolve the political crisis through legal means, as well as by building the foundations osudarstvennosti in Chechnya  . In the same year, presidential elections were held, the victory of which was won by Akhmat Kadyrov (80.84% of voters supported the candidacy  ). On May 9, 2004, Akhmat Kadyrov died in the city of Grozny as a result of a terrorist act. His successors continued the program to restore the peaceful life of the republic, its economic and social sphere  .
Presidency of Alu Alkhanov
After the death of Akhmad Kadyrov in 2004, Alu Alkhanov became the new president of the Chechen Republic.
Presidency of Ramzan Kadyrov
In 2007, after the resignation of Alu Alkhanov, Ramzan Kadyrov , the son of Akhmat Kadyrov, who was aware of the balance of political forces and using national traditions to restore the economic and social sphere of the republic, became the president of Chechnya  . In 2009, in connection with the stabilization of the situation, the national antiterrorist committee, on behalf of the president of Russia, made changes to the organization of antiterrorist activities in Chechnya. On April 16, 2009, the order announcing the territory of the Chechen Republic as the zone of the counter-terrorist operation , in force since October 1999, was canceled  . By this time, the cities and villages of the republic have been restored. In the once destroyed Grozny, residential quarters, a church were restored, mosques, stadiums, museums, and memorials “Walk of Glory” were built in honor of the killed Interior Ministry officers in the Chechen Republic during the second Chechen war. In 2010, the Grozny City complex of high-rise buildings (up to 45 floors) was built. In the second largest city of the Republic of Gudermes, a complete reconstruction was carried out and a complex of high-rise buildings was built.
The population of the republic according to Rosstat is 1,456,951 people (2019). The population density is 93.11 people / km² (2019). The urban population is 34.4  % (2018).
250 803 people live in the city of Grozny (2010), the second most populated city is Urus-Martan - 52 399 people (2010); then follow: Shali - 46 073 people, Gudermes - 43 969 people, Argun - 42 797 people (2010).
The age structure of the population is as follows: 57.0% of the republic’s population belongs to the able-bodied population, 35% - younger than working age, 8% - older than working age.
The vast majority of the population are Chechens (95.3%), Russians , Kumyks , Avars , Nogais , and Ingushs also live. Before the deportation of Chechens and their subsequent return to the northern regions of the republic, Russian and Russian-speaking ( Terek Cossacks ) made up the vast majority of the population; in the city of Grozny and the Sunzha basin, their number was also significant. The pre-war Russian and Russian-speaking population was forced to leave Chechnya during the reign of Dzhokhar Dudayev in 1991 - 1994 , and a significant number died during the period of active hostilities in 1994-1996 (see Ethnic cleansing in Chechnya ). Ramzan Kadyrov called the revival of the multinational community of the republic one of the priority tasks of the new leadership of the republic.
|People||Headcount in 2002 ||Headcount in 2010 ||Compared to 2002|
|Chechens||1,031,600 (93.5%)||1 206 551 (95.3%)||↗ 17.0%|
|Russians||40,600 (3.7%)||24,382 (1.9%)||↘ 40.0%|
|Kumyks||8883||12,221 (1.0%)||↗ 37.6%|
|Chamalaly||4100||4864 (0.4%)||↗ 17.7%|
|Nogai||3572||3444 (0.3%)||↘ 3.6%|
|Tabasarans||128||1656 (0.1%)||↗ 1193.7%|
|Turks||1662||1484 (0.1%)||↘ 10.7%|
|Tatars||2134||1466 (0.1%)||↘ 31.3%|
|Ingush||2914||1296 (0.1%)||↘ 55.5%|
|Lezgins||196||1261 (0.1%)||↗ 543.4%|
|non-nationality||205||2515 ||↗ 1126.8%|
|Showing peoples with numbers |
more than 1000 people
According to the Constitution of Chechnya, the official languages in the Chechen Republic are Chechen and Russian (Article 10)   .
The prevailing religion in the Chechen Republic today is Sunni Islam ( Shafiite madhhab ), which has had a great spiritual, cultural and political influence on many peoples of the region. The mass spread of Islam among the ancestors of the Chechens began in the XIV century, and took place mainly peacefully - through missionary activity from neighboring Dagestan, where Islam penetrated earlier, in the wake of the Arab conquests. Like most believers in the North-East Caucasus, Islam here takes the form of Sufism , represented in Chechnya by the tariqi Kadiriya and Naqshbandiyya . Among the believing Chechens there is also a division into religious groups - wird brotherhoods, the total number of which reaches thirty in the Chechen Republic. Features of Islam in the Chechen Republic: believers rely on the basic principles of Islam, but at the same time follow Sufi traditions, venerating certain saints ( auli ) from among the Islamic clergy (ustazes, sheikhs ). A large place is given to oral prayers, performed rituals and rituals ( dhikr ), pilgrimage to holy places ( hajj ) and burials ( ziyarat ), religious construction ( mosques , ziyarat mausoleums, religious schools)  .
Thanks to the activities of the current government of the Chechen Republic and the muftiate, the centuries-old spiritual and cultural tradition is actively reanimated in modern conditions. In fact, the rapid revival of traditional Islam began, which is manifested not only in the construction of mosques and other things, but also in the spiritual enlightenment of the population, especially youth. The Muslim clergy, in their daily sermons, calls for unity, spiritual exaltation, condemn drug addiction and many other sinful, from the point of view of Islam, actions  .
Currently, there are several Orthodox churches in the republic, including the Church of St. Michael the Archangel , the Church of the Nativity of Christ in the village of Naurskaya  , the church of the Holy Great Martyr Barbara in the village of Shelkovskaya  , the church in the name of the Holy Prince Dimitry Donskoy in the suburb of Grozny Khankala  , the chapel of St. George the Great Martyr in the village of Kalinovskaya  , the church of the Holy Prince Alexander Nevsky in the village of Kurchaloy . Also in the city of Grozny there is a chapel (opposite the FSB building), a prayer room in the Nursing Home of the city of Grozny  , an Orthodox church in the village of Ishcherskaya  . The churches destroyed during the first Chechen campaign have been restored over the past few years  on behalf of the Head of the Chechen Republic Ramzan Kadyrov at the expense of funds from the Regional Public Fund named after the first President of the Chechen Republic, Hero of Russia Akhmat-Khadzhi Kadyrov . The leadership of Chechnya also provides financial and other assistance to the Orthodox republics. Assistance was provided in the pilgrimage of the delegation of Orthodox youth  from the Chechen Republic in the Stavropol Territory. Every year, assistance is also provided in the celebration of Easter  .
According to the results of a study by the international charitable Christian organization “ Open Doors ” for 2012, the Chechen Republic ranked 20th in the list of regions of the world where Christian rights are most often oppressed  .
Since the 18th century, the division of historical Chechnya into Greater Chechnya (high) and Lesser Chechnya (low) has been known, the border between which was the Sunzha River  .
Chechnya is administratively divided into 15 regions and 3 cities of republican significance ( Grozny , Argun and Gudermes )   . The capital of the republic is the city of Grozny . According to the Constitution of the Chechen Republic , the region consists of 17 districts , including the Galanchozh and Cheberloevsky districts   that were not formally organized  .
Municipally, Chechnya is divided into 15 municipal districts and 2 urban districts .
|No.||district (municipal district)|
/ city of republican
values (city district)
|one||Achkhoy-Martan district||Tӏekha-Martanan Kost||Achkhoy-Martan|
|2||Vedeno district||Vedanan clost||Conducted|
|3||Grozny district||Sölzha-GӀalin kӀosht||Tolstoy-Yurt|
|four||Gudermes District||Gumsan Klosht||Gudermes|
|five||Itum-Kalinsky district||Eaton Khaillan Kost||Itum Kali|
|6||Kurchaloevsky district||Kurchaloyn Kost||Kurchaloy|
|7||Nadterechny district||Tercan Kost||Znamenskoye|
|eight||Naursky district||Nevran Kost||Naurskaya|
|9||Nozhai-Yurt district||Click-Yurtan Kost||Nozhai-Yurt|
|ten||Sunzhensky District||Soljan košt||Sernovodskaya|
|eleven||Urus-Martan district||Hyalha Martanan Kost||Urus-Martan|
|12||Shali district||Shelan Kost||Shawls|
|13||Sharoy district||Sharoyne Kost||Khimoy|
|14||Shatoi district||Shuytan Kost||Chatoy|
|15||Shelkovsky district||Shelkovskan Kost||Shelkovskaya|
|sixteen||city Grozniy||Sölzha-GӀalin guo||The terrible|
|17||Argun city||Orga gӀalin guo||Argun|
Demarcated borders with Ingushetia
In 1992, for a number of political, economic and other reasons, the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was divided into two separate entities - Chechnya and Ingushetia, the border between which was not demarcated   . Only in 2018, the head of Chechnya R. A. Kadyrov and the head of Ingushetia, Yu.-B. B. Evkurov signed an agreement defining the borders between the republics (the change affected three regions in Chechnya and Ingushetia). The signing took place on September 26, and on October 4 of that year, a law was adopted in Chechnya “On approval of an agreement on the establishment of a border between the Republic of Ingushetia and the Chechen Republic” that entered into force on October 15, and a similar law in Ingushetia entered into force on October 16. On the same days, the agreement was ratified and became binding on the two republics  .
There are 6 cities in the republic: Grozny , Urus-Martan , Shali , Gudermes , Argun , Kurchaloy .
- Settlements with a population of more than 10,000 people.
State power in the Chechen Republic is divided into independent branches - legislative , executive and judicial (Article 4.5 of the Constitution of the Chechen Republic)   .
Executive power is represented by the Head of the Chechen Republic [comm. 3] and the Government, the legislative - the Parliament, the judicial - the courts of the Chechen Republic  .
On July 31, 1995, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation adopted Decree No. 10-P in the case of the verification of regulatory legal acts related to the restoration of constitutional law and order in the Chechen Republic, which established:
extraordinary situation: the operation of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws was denied, the system of legal authorities was destroyed, regular illegal armed groups equipped with the latest military equipment were created, massive violations of the rights and freedoms of citizens took place.- 
On March 23, 2003, a referendum was passed, which adopted the new Constitution of the Chechen Republic and the law on the election of the President and Parliament of the Chechen Republic  .
In October 2003, the President of the Chechen Republic was elected, the Government was formed, courts were formed, and law enforcement agencies were established. In August 2004, in connection with the death of the President, a new President of the Chechen Republic was elected. On November 25, 2005, the Parliament of the Chechen Republic was elected  .
- Head of the Republic
The legal status and powers of the Head of the Chechen Republic are regulated by Chapter 5 of the Constitution of the Chechen Republic (Articles 63-77), according to which he is the highest official, heads the executive branch and has the right to head the Government of the Chechen Republic. Included in the system of executive power, determines the structure of executive bodies of state power of the Chechen Republic, forms the Government of the Chechen Republic. The head of the Chechen Republic is elected by secret ballot on the basis of universal equal and direct suffrage for a term of 5 years. The head of the Chechen Republic can be a citizen of the Russian Federation who has reached the age of 30 years, has no citizenship (residence permit or other document) of a foreign state and has passive suffrage in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation. It is not allowed to combine the position of the Head of the Chechen Republic and the position of a deputy of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, a member of the Council of the Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, a judge, other government posts of the Russian Federation, the Chechen Republic and the subject of the federation, as well as municipal posts, cannot be engaged in other paid activities, except for teaching, scientific and other creative activities  .
Currently, the post of the Head of the Chechen Republic is occupied by Kadyrov Ramzan Akhmatovich   .
Chapter 5 of the Constitution of the Czech Republic is devoted to the legal status of the Parliament. Parliament is unicameral [comm. 4] and is the permanent supreme and sole legislative (representative) body of state power in the Chechen Republic (Article 78 of the Constitution of the Chechen Republic). It consists of 41 deputies, elected for 5 years by secret ballot on the basis of direct suffrage. Parliament is competent if at least two-thirds of the established number of deputies are elected and the first session is convened no later than 15 days from the announcement of the voting results   .
The Chairman of the Parliament from July 3, 2015 - Daudov Magomed Khozhakhmedovich  .
The formation and responsibilities of the Government of the Chechen Republic are determined by Chapter 6 of the Constitution of the Chechen Republic. The Government of the Chechen Republic is a permanent supreme executive body that ensures the implementation of the legislation of the Russian Federation, including the regulatory legal acts of the Chechen Republic on its territory. It is formed for the term of office of the Head of the Chechen Republic, issues resolutions and orders, which are binding on the entire territory of the Chechen Republic  . It consists of the Chairman of the Government of the Chechen Republic, First Deputy Chairman, Deputy Prime Ministers and Ministers of the Government of the Chechen Republic  .
Since June 25, 2018, the Chairman of the Government of the Chechen Republic Muslim Khuchiev  .
March 15, 2000 at a meeting of representatives of the Chechen Republic with and. about. President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin raised the issue of resuming the activity of courts of general jurisdiction in the territory of Chechnya, after which at the end of March 2000 at a meeting of the Government Commission on the normalization of the socio-political situation in Chechnya the issues of forming the staff of courts of general jurisdiction, financing and technical support, in connection with which proposals were made to the law "On the Federal Budget for 2000" on the allocation of funds for the construction of buildings and housing for judges and staff.
However, the revival of the judiciary in the Chechen Republic began after the instruction of the President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin dated July 6, 2000. The beginning of the creation of the Constitutional Court of the Chechen Republic began with the adoption of the Constitution of the Chechen Republic in 2003, containing chapter 7 on the judiciary, where in part 3 of article 96 it says:
On the territory of the Chechen Republic there are federal courts, the Constitutional Court of the Chechen Republic, and justices of the peace of the Chechen Republic.- Constitution of the Chechen Republic 
Article 100 of the Constitution of the Chechen Republic defines the powers and functions of the Constitutional Court of the Chechen Republic   .
On November 11, 2006, the first organized meeting of the Constitutional Court of the Chechen Republic took place  . Since December 22, 2016, the Chairperson of the Court has been Nakhukhanov Vakha Selimovich  As of March 1, 2016, the Constitutional Court of the Chechen Republic issued only 1 ruling for the entire period of its activity, beginning in 2006, while maintaining the court in the regional budget in 2015 alone, 35.4 million rubles were foreseen.  , which indicates a clear inefficiency of the court and the need to bear a sufficiently high cost of its maintenance.
Currently, in the territory of the Chechen Republic, in addition to the Constitutional Court of the Chechen Republic, the Supreme Court of the Chechen Republic, the Arbitration Court of the Chechen Republic  , the Grozny Garrison Military Court  , 15 courts of general jurisdiction and 66  sections of magistrates  operate ] .
The flag as the official symbol of the Chechen Republic was approved on June 3, 2008 and entered in the State Heraldry Register of the Russian Federation under No. 4282  . It is a rectangular panel with a ratio of width to length 2: 3, consisting of three horizontal stripes: the upper one is green, the middle one is white and the lower one is red, correlating as 6: 1: 4. Along the shaft there is a vertical strip of white color with a yellow Chechen national ornament 1/8 of the width of the cloth  .
The coat of arms of the Chechen Republic was approved on June 3, 2008, and in the same year it was included in the State Heraldry Register of the Russian Federation under No. 4281  . It is a white circle in a two-dimensional plane, inside of which is a symbol of unity, eternity in the form of a national Chechen ornament of red color, stylized mountains, the historical Vainakh tower and the blue oil tower, together representing a compositional solution square in a circle. The inner circle of blue is symmetrically framed by yellow ears of wheat, which symbolizes the wealth of the Chechen people. The upper part of the ears is crowned with a crescent moon and a yellow star on a blue background. On the outer yellow circle there is a red ornament pattern in the Chechen national style. The outer edging of the coat of arms is blue  . On June 18, 2013, amendments were made to the law on the coat of arms regarding the use of the coat of arms on letterheads in color and one-color versions, seals, etc. 
The anthem as one of the state symbols of the Chechen Republic along with the flag and coat of arms was approved in 2010. The music was written by the Chechen composer Umar Beksultanov , the text of the hymn is X-A. Kadyrov  .
Basic information on gross regional product (GRP), that is, GDP for a single region, for all constituent entities of the Russian Federation and, in particular, for the Chechen Republic, is known from the data provided by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat)  . Information on Chechnya is also provided by the territorial body of the Federal State Statistics Service for the Chechen Republic (Chechenstat)  . Both organizations have official websites where information on GRP and VP per capita is given in Russian rubles at current basic prices (data on these resources are presented for 2016 inclusively). For 2017, the statistical indicators for the republic are known according to information from the Ministry of Economic, Territorial Development and Trade of the Chechen Republic:
|Gross regional |
(billion rubles per year)
|List Place |
subjects of the Russian Federation on GRP
(total subjects 89, later 83 and 85)
|Gross product |
(rubles per year)
|List Place |
subjects of the Russian Federation on VP
(total subjects 89, later 83 and 85)
|2005||22,899 -||... (out of 89)||20,038 -||... (out of 89)|
|2006||32,344 ↗||... (out of 89)||27 831 ↗||... (out of 89)|
|2007||48,056 ↗||... (out of 89)||40 573 ↗||... (out of 89)|
|2008||66,274 ↗||71 - (from 83)||54 742 ↗||82 - (from 83)|
|2009||64,308 ↘||73 ↘ (from 83)||51 981 ↘||82 - (from 83)|
|2010||70,695 ↗||74 ↘ (out of 83)||55 996 ↗||82 - (from 83)|
|2011||86,623 ↗||73 ↗ (from 83)||67 221 ↗||82 - (from 83)|
|2012||102,289 ↗||73 - (from 83)||77 877 ↗||83 ↘ (from 83)|
|2013||122,403 ↗||71 ↗ (out of 83)||91 646 ↗||83 - (from 83)|
|2014||148,942 ↗||69 ↗ (out of 85)||109 649 ↗||83 ↗ (out of 85)|
|2015||154,401 ↗||72 ↘ (out of 85)||111 705 ↗||84 ↘ (out of 85)|
|2016||166,711 ↗||70 ↗ (out of 85)||118 696 ↗||84 - (out of 85)|
|2017||180, 732 ↗||... (out of 85)||...||... (out of 85)|
|2018||...||... (out of 85)||...||... (out of 85)|
Basic information about the structure and index of the physical volume of gross regional product (GRP) for the Chechen Republic by type of economic activity is provided by the territorial body of the Federal State Statistics Service for the Chechen Republic (Chechenstat)  . The GRP table shows the types of economic activity at basic prices in millions of rubles, in parentheses the index of physical volume as a percentage of the previous year and then the structure of the physical volume of GRP as a percentage of GRP in total:
|2015 year||2016 year|
|(million rubles)||(%)||(%)||(million rubles)||(%)||(%)|
|Total GRP||154 401, 405||(102.9)||100||166 711, 252||(104.4)||100|
|Agriculture, hunting and forestry||12,474,029||(110.9)||8.1||15,084.877||(109.8)||9.0|
|Fishery, fish farming||13,676||(62.2)||0,0||10,009||(66.3)||0,0|
|Mining||2 114,343||(87.9)||1.4||2 890,384||(138.1)||1.7|
|Manufacturing||4 508,438||(111.8)||2.9||4 112,921||(87.6)||2.5|
|Production and distribution of electricity, gas and water||3 433,329||(124.2)||2.2||3 957,871||(110.3)||2,4|
|Building||22 906,701||(97.3)||14.8||26 518,954||(113.6)||15.9|
|Wholesale and retail trade; vehicle repair,|
motorcycles, household goods and personal items
|27 122,531||(102.0)||17.5||28 482,455||(100.8)||17,2|
|Hotels and restaurants||5 513,397||(104.2)||3.6||6 071,066||(104.6)||3.6|
|Transport and communications||8 431,023||(98.7)||5.5||9 031,632||(100.6)||5,4|
|Real estate operations, rental and|
provision of services
|7 342,640||(107.7)||4.8||7 987,681||(107.5)||4.8|
|Public Administration and Military Support|
security; compulsory social insurance
|Education||18 232,589||(111.7)||11.8||19 105,515||(104.3)||11.5|
|Health and social services||12 607,200||(101.1)||8.2||12 851,265||(98.1)||7.7|
|The provision of other utility, social and|
|2 925,522||(99.2)||1.9||2 911,764||(96.3)||1.7|
The place of the Chechen Republic in the economy of the Russian Federation is determined by its unique natural resource complex: climate, diversity of agricultural types, stocks of raw materials, forest and other resources. The geoeconomic situation, increasing labor resources, and labor traditions make it possible to assert that the republic is prepared for socio-economic modernization based on investments and innovations  . An important role in the formation of the region’s economy was played by the administrative resource of the head of the republic, R. A. Kadyrov, whose actions are to organize a long-term system of interaction between business and government. On his behalf, the main objects of industrial development were established: the resource and raw material base of oil refining and oil production projects, the forest fund and the woodworking industry, the agro-industrial, construction and tourist complexes  .
The potential of natural resources, factors and conditions of the Chechen Republic makes it possible to plan the activities of enterprises for decades to come, which makes it possible to clearly formulate the conditions for development proposals, including through the construction of new and modernization and expansion of existing enterprises  .
In accordance with the instruction of the President of the Russian Federation, following a meeting of the State Council of the Russian Federation of July 21, 2006 for the period until 2020, a plan for the socio-economic development of the Chechen Republic was prepared   . This document is intended to ensure the long-term and productive development of the republic that meets the interests of the population  .
The average cost of living per capita as of Q2 2017 is 9693 rubles, including 8138 rubles for pensioners and 9650 rubles for children  .
For 2018, the budget of the Chechen Republic is planned for revenues of 57,614,769.4 thousand rubles, for expenses of 66,166,266.4 thousand rubles  .
The public debt of the Chechen Republic as of October 1, 2017 amounted to 4,171.1 million rubles  .
In 2015, the budget revenues of the Chechen Republic amounted to 73,682.2 million rubles, including tax and non-tax revenues of 12,627 million rubles. Debt on taxes and fees to the budget system of the Russian Federation in 2015 is 2096 million rubles  .
Directions of expenses in 2015  :
|Direction||2015 - the amount, thousand rubles|
|National issues||3 477 446.9|
|National Security and Law Enforcement||176 073.6|
|Department of Housing and Utilities||1,169,598.03|
|Environmental protection||62 054.9|
|Education||15 781 716.8|
|Healthcare||7 515 836.15|
|Social politics||9 292 336.8|
|physical Culture and sport||901 478.01|
|Public and municipal debt service||6 207,08|
|Fuel and energy complex||20 517.6|
Sources of revenues of the regional budget in 2015  :
|A source||2015 - the amount, thousand rubles|
|Tax and non-tax revenues||8 530 252.4|
|Gratuitous receipts from other budgets of the budget system of the Russian Federation||40 320 140.4|
The budget of the Chechen Republic in terms of subsidies is in 33rd place, this result is less by 0.5% compared with the previous period   .
The authors of the Russian Empire also called Chechnya “extremely fertile”  . Today, the basis of agriculture in the republic is the production of grapes and vegetables, the cultivation and processing of grain crops. Fine fleece sheep breeding, poultry farming, cattle ranching was expanded  .
According to preliminary data, on October 1, 2017, in the agricultural organizations of the republic, crops were mowed and threshed on an area of 92.9 thousand hectares, which is 40.7% more compared to last year  .
The index of agricultural production in farms of all categories for the II quarter of 2017 in comparable prices in% to the corresponding period of the previous year is 105.2%  .
In September 2013, an agreement was signed according to which the Israeli company LR-Group, in cooperation with the Russian Ambika-Agro, will build a dairy complex that includes two farms for 1200 and 2400 dairy cows. The Israelis will also set up a training center to train professionals who will serve the farm   .
Trade and services
Retail sales amounted to 152,437.5 million rubles (in 2014, 146,703 million rubles)  . In terms of per capita retail trade turnover, it is in 78th place in the Russian Federation (in 2014, in 80th place). The volume of investments in fixed assets of own funds is 45.3%, attracted - 54.7%. The balanced financial result (profit minus loss) of organizations amounted to -11059 million rubles. The volume of financial investments received in the economy of the Chechen Republic amounted to 372 million rubles  , the balance of direct foreign investments , according to the Central Bank of Russia , in 2015 amounted to 127 million US dollars, in 2016 it was not received  .
The foreign trade turnover of the republic amounted to $ 16.7 million, including export - $ 1.8 million (9.9 times higher than in 2014), import - $ 14.9 million and 42.8% respectively  .
The industrial production index in 2016 (as% of the previous year) is 100.8%  .
The oil and gas refining industry of the Chechen Republic is one of the oldest in the world: in 1887 the first oil refinery was built in Grozny  . Hydrocarbon resources mined in the Russian Federation are federal property. As of September 1, 2012, 14 oil fields are being developed in the Chechen Republic, while 8 are being explored, and 14 are not being developed. There is 1 oil and gas condensate field  .
According to studies, the main factor constraining the development of the economy of the Republic is the lack of its own generating capacities, as a result of which energy is supplied through flows from neighboring regions, as well as purchased electricity from a guaranteeing supplier. All this has a negative impact on end-user tariffs. To solve these problems, the Program of the Chechen Republic “Development of industry, energy and energy efficiency in the Chechen Republic”   was adopted.
According to the electric balance for 2016, the Chechen Republic consumed a total of 2636.9 electricity (million kWh) (of which 9.5 were produced; 2823.4 were received from outside the Russian Federation)  .
The Chechen Republic is able to provide almost all types of tourism: cultural, educational, health-improving, extreme, sports and others [comm. 5] . There are many healing springs: in Gudermes ( Braguny , Melch-Khi), Grozny ( Goryachevodsk ), Shatoy ( Zonah ) and other areas (the source is most effectively used in the Sernovodsk area in the resort of Sernovodsk-Kavkazsky , restored in 2013  ). Many natural monuments - waterfalls, such as Argun, Aksai, Gekhinsky, Bashenkala complex, which includes three waterfalls: Bashenkalinsky, "Maiden's Tears" and Vashindaroysky , Nihaloysky , Khulkhuloysky, Kharachoysky    . In the picturesque mountain zone, about 20 ecological-tourist routes have been developed on the territory of the river basins of the Chanty-Argun, Sharoy-Argun, Gekhi, Roshnya, Hulhulau, Fortanga, Ansalta and Gums. Here, in a slightly altered and almost wild nature, you can see ancient historical and architectural monuments associated with the history of the “Vainakh” tribes of the North Caucasus  . To attract tourists, such events as the construction of a hippodrome in the village of Berdykel are planned with the aim of developing equestrian sports.
The Republic has the National Museum of the Chechen Republic  , the Literary Museum of M. Yu. Lermontov in the village. Paraboch  , the Literary and Ethnographic Museum of L. N. Tolstoy in the village of Starogladovskaya  , the historical and ethnographic open-air museum "Dondi-Yurt" in Urus-Martan [comm. 6]  , Museum of Local Lore named after H. Isaev in the medieval castle complex of Phakoch  .
Tourism in the capital
Attractions attractive to tourists include the largest mosques in Europe “The Heart of Chechnya” , the Orthodox Church of Mikhail the Archangel at the end of the 19th century; the complex of high-rise buildings "Grozny City" with an observation deck above the 29th floor in the Business Center [comm. 7]  ; a light and music fountain resembling a traditional Chechen ornament in the form of a sports and tourist complex “Grozny Sea” located around the Grozny Sea [comm. 8]  and others. An arboretum is located near the reservoir  . In the center of Grozny are the National Museum of the Chechen Republic , the State Theater and Concert Hall , Vladimir Putin Avenue - the main street, the Akhmat Kadyrov Memorial Complex and the Akhmat-Hadji Kadyrov Museum - the main attraction of the complex, the unique gallery of Iles Tataev in a private mansion, representing sculptures from mouth guard  . A beautiful view of the city opens from the Kupol restaurant, which is located on the 32nd floor of the five-star Grozny hotel in one of the Grozny City skyscrapers [comm. 9] . The 435-meter multi-functional complex Akhmat Tower is being built in the style of a medieval Chechen watch tower [comm. 10] , as well as the Grozny Mall shopping and entertainment center, planned as the largest in the south of Russia and connected by a pedestrian bridge-gallery with the Akhmat Tower 
Argun Gorge of Itum-Kalinsky District is an open-air historical and architectural museum with more than 600 historical and architectural monuments of the ancient Vainakh region, including the Argun State Historical-Architectural and Natural Museum-Reserve  . Restoration work is underway at the Veduchi all-weather resort and health zone located in the gorge. This project is the largest of the development program   . In the city of Argun is the "Heart of Mother" . In the upper reaches of Argun is the necropolis “Dead City” - Tsoi-Pede (“Settlement of the Deity”), located in the historical region of Melchist (“Country of the Sun”) [comm. 11]  .
In 2015, the Kezenoy-Am tourist-recreational cluster was opened, located in the south of the Chechen Republic [comm. 12]  . For everyone, there is a zipline connecting the two shores of the lake  .
There are three universities in Chechnya:
- Grozny State Oil Technical University ;
- Chechen State University ;
- Chechen State Pedagogical University .
All three universities are located in Grozny.
Since April 1, 2010, Chechnya has been participating in an experiment on teaching the course " Fundamentals of Religious Cultures and Secular Ethics " (includes the Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture , the Fundamentals of Islamic Culture, the Fundamentals of Buddhist Culture, the Fundamentals of Jewish Culture, and the Fundamentals of the World religious cultures ”, and“ Fundamentals of secular ethics ”)  .
September 1, 2015 in Grozny opened a new modern educational center with a total area of 15,000 square meters, including five buildings: two educational, teacher, sports and dining room  .
The secondary vocational education institutions of the Chechen Republic are represented by technical schools / colleges of energy, food industry, medical, culture and art, pedagogical, motor transport and others   .
The culture of Chechnya is rare and unique, with a thousand-year history. It presents all kinds of genres inherent in the cultures of civilized peoples, differing in ethnic identity, which was influenced by both the geographical position and the ethnocultural environment  . Chechen folklore is represented by the following genres: mythology, heroic epics, fairy tales, legends, songs (ritual, labor, lullabies, etc.), proverbs, children's folklore, religious folklore (hadiths, nazmas), the works of zhurgs and tuliks. The mythology of the Chechen people has remained fragmentary  .
The date of the emergence of Chechen literature is associated with their use of writing, which previously used both Georgian and Byzantine Greek letters. The oldest written monument in the Chechen language is teftar - Chechen family chronicles. In 1866, the “Chechen Primer” by I. A. Bartolomew , composed on the basis of the Cyrillic alphabet , was published. Modern written literature in the Chechen language was formed in the 1920s: in 1923 Akhmad Najaev 's collection of songs and stories was published, in 1925 the newspaper Serlo with stories and poems in the Chechen language was published by Abdi Dudaev , Sh. Sagaipova, M Salmurzaeva and others. In the 1930s, the works of poets Shamsuddin Aiskhanov , Nurdin Muzayev , Arbi Mamakayev appeared . In the late 1930s – early 1940s of the 20th century, Arbi Mamakayev’s poem “In the Mountains of Chechnya” was published. The 1980s saw the formation of a new generation of Chechen writers: Musa Beksultanov , Musa Akhmadov , Said-Khamzat Nunuev and others. Modern Chechen literature is represented by a variety of writers and genres  .
- National Library of the Chechen Republic ;
- Republican Children's Library of the Chechen Republic .
Both libraries are located in Grozny.
Musical and choreographic
Despite the traditions of folk drama (the Juhurg Theater and the Tulik Theater), theater groups in Chechnya appeared in the 1920s. Then the first national plays were created: “Murid” by S. Shadiev and M. Gaisanov, “The Law of the Fathers” by Isa Eldarkhanov and Said Baduev , “Alibek-Hadji Zandaksky” by Danilbek Sheripov and others 
Chechen musical culture is divided into:
- Instrumental program music ( Chech. Ladugha Yish )
- Marching music ( Chech. Doshloin Yish )
- Dance ( Chech. Helhar Yish )
- Song ( Chech. Yish and Chech. Illi )
Performed by stringed, bowed, wind and percussion instruments, in the 19th century harmonica, button accordion and accordion were added to them. The characteristic differences of Chechen music are, for example, the end of folk songs in the fourth, the gradual sequential construction in a downward movement, the change of trioli and duoles, the passage of the main melody in the middle voice with a three-voice song. Many folk songs begin with an upward jump to septima, but they are characterized by a stop at one of the melody sounds at the beginning of the song  .
The representative of the choreographic culture is the State Dance Ensemble Vainakh , founded in 1939, the winner of the Grand Prix of international festivals (Turkey in 1998, Italy in 1999, France in 2002 and 2007, Italy and Spain in 2003, and etc.)   , as well as the Bashlam Republican Song and Dance Ensemble named after Khasan Aliyev , founded in 1967, a participant and laureate of Russian and international competitions, the owner of many grand prix of international festivals  [130 ] ] .
- Chechen Drama Theater named after Khanpasha Nuradilov ;
- Grozny Russian Drama Theater named after M. Yu. Lermontov ;
- Chechen State Theater for Young Spectators ;
- Chechen State Youth Theater Serlo .
All theaters are located in Grozny.
- State Symphony Orchestra of the Chechen Republic ;
- Chechen State Philharmonic Society ;
Museum business has been developing in the Chechen Republic since the opening in 1924 of the National Museum of the Chechen Republic in Grozny. In 1961, the Museum of Fine Arts named after Peter Zakharov was opened. By the end of the 20th century, the museums of the Chechen Republic were considered the largest in the North Caucasus  .
- National Museum of the Chechen Republic ;
- State Gallery named after Akhmad-Hadji Kadyrov;
- Literary and Memorial Museum of A. Aydamirov in the village of Meskety (branch of the National Museum of the Czech Republic);
- Argun State Historical, Architectural and Natural Museum-Reserve ;
- Literary and Ethnographic Museum of Leo Tolstoy (stanitsa Starogladovskaya );
- Lermontov Literary Museum (branch of the National Museum of the Czech Republic);
- Literary and Memorial Museum of Arbi Mamakayev in with. Nadterechnoye (branch of the National Museum of the Czech Republic);
- Museum of Local Lore named after H. Isaev ( Itum-Kalinsky District );
- Historical and Ethnographic Open-Air Museum "Dondi-Yurt" (Urus-Martan);
- Makhketinsky Museum of Local Lore (branch of the National Museum of the Czech Republic);
- Museum them. OH. Kadyrov
- Gallery of Iles Tataev   .
In November 2018, Chechnya topped the rating of the most sober regions of Russia  .
- Chechen conflict
- Chechen leadership after 1991
- Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
- Chechen State TV and Radio Company “Grozny” ;
- Chechen State University
- Constitution of the Chechen Republic
- Until 2018, various sources provided different information about the area due to the fact that the border between the Chechen Republic and the Republic of Ingushetia was not finally established ( Anchabadze, 2001 , p. 14). September 26, 2018 the head of Ingushetia, Y.-B. B. Evkurov and the head of Chechnya, R. A. Kadyrov, signed an agreement on establishing the border between the republics, after which the area was indicated more accurately ( Pravo.Ru, 10.27.2018 , Parliament of the Chechen Republic, 2018 ).
- “Plane” is the traditional name for the foothill plain in the North Caucasus ; the term is not used in Transcaucasia ( Anchabadze, 2001 , p. 16).
- Until December 31, 2010 he was called the President of the Chechen Republic, changes to the legislative acts on naming were introduced by the Constitutional Law of the Chechen Republic dated December 31, 2010 No. 5-RKZ “On Amending Certain Constitutional Laws of the Chechen Republic”
- Until December 2, 2007, it consisted of two chambers (the Council of the Republic and the People’s Assembly), changes to the legislative acts on the composition of the Parliament were introduced by the Constitutional Law of the Chechen Republic dated 02.12.2007 No. 2-RKZ “On amendments and revisions of certain provisions of the Constitution of the Chechen Republic”
- Not used for excursions, although promising for various types of tourism, the mountain gorges of the rivers Hulhulau , Elstanzhoy Akhk, Bass , Vashadar, Tenig, etc., having beautiful natural landscapes and environmentally friendly conditions.
- This is the first private museum in the Chechen Republic, it works seven days a week and accepts visitors for free. ( Official website of the Ministry of the Chechen Republic for Tourism (2013). Date accessed March 31, 2019. ).
- observation deck is open only on weekends. Here you can take pictures of everything except the residence of the Head of the Chechen Republic R. A. Kadyrov , otherwise they will approach you and ask you to delete the photo ( This is the Caucasus (June 14, 2017). Date of appeal March 25, 2019. ).
- The water-light show can be watched on Saturday and Sunday from 21:00 to 21:40 Moscow time. A weekend program was organized with the participation of Chechen pop stars and experienced entertainers ( Chechen State Television and Radio Company "Grozny" (July 25, 2017). Date of appeal March 25, 2019. ).
- The Kupol Restaurant is the only place in the city where you can legally buy alcohol. More in no restaurant or cafe in the city will tourists pour wine. There is also “Lenta” - a federal chain hypermarket where you can buy any alcohol only from 8 to 10 in the morning. In the Chechen Republic, there is a restriction on the sale of alcoholic beverages, while there is no prohibition ( This is the Caucasus (June 14, 2017). Date of treatment March 25, 2019. ).
- Construction has been underway since February 2015. In the project, a skyscraper with a height of 102 floors is planned as the first high building of Russia and Europe in the earthquake zone ( TASS (November 20, 2017). Date of treatment March 28, 2019. ).
- crypt complex dates back to the V — XVII century, the exact date of foundation is unknown
- The first open republican chess tournament was held at the Kezenoi Am resort, which is scheduled to become annual and receive international status ( Chechen State TV and Radio Company “Grozny” (March 25, 2019). Date of appeal March 26, 2019. ).
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