Dalmatia ( Croat. Dalmacija , Italian. Dalmazia , Serb. Dalmatia , Latin Dalmatia ) is a historical region in the north-west of the Balkan Peninsula , on the coast of the Adriatic Sea , on the territory of modern Croatia (mainly) and Montenegro .
History of Dalmatia
|History of Dalmatia|
|Dalmatia (Roman province)|
|Principles of Medieval Dalmatia|
|Kingdom of Dalmatia|
|Governorate of Dalmatia|
|Battle in the Dalmatian Straits|
In ancient times Dalmatia was inhabited by Illyrian tribes - Dalmatians , Liburns, etc., as well as the Thracians and Celts .
In the IV century BC. er Greek colonies were founded on the coast of Dalmatia.
In 229 BC er the Roman invasion began (two Illyrian wars , 229-228 and 219 BC).
In the II — I centuries BC. er the local population repeatedly rebelled against the Romans up to the time of Octavian , by which Dalmatia was subdued and annexed to the province of Illyricum (34-33 BC).
In 6-9 years BC. er Tiberius suppressed an uprising in Dalmatia, after which two Illyrian provinces were formed - Illyricum Superius (since the time of the Flavians called Dalmatia) and Illyricum Inferius ( Pannonia ).
Diocletian singled out the southern part of Dalmatia with Skodra (present-day Shkoder in Albania ) as the province of Prevalitan .
The Romans organized military camps and settlements of veterans in Dalmatia. The capital of the province became the city of Salona ( Salonae ).
Several Roman emperors (for example, Diocletian ) came from Dalmatia.
In the III century, St. Isaac of Dalmatia lived and was buried in Dalmatia .
Since the 6th century, Dalmatia has been ruled by Byzantium . In the VI — VII centuries. The region is occupied by Croats and Serbs (in the south).
In the 9th century, Dalmatian cities became part of the Croatian state , and at the beginning of the 12th century they passed under the rule of Hungary .
In 1420-1797 Dalmatia (except Dubrovnik ) was ruled by Venice , who saw dangerous merchants in local merchants and tried to limit or completely destroy the foreign trade of Dalmatian cities and put them into complete economic dependence. Venice not only interfered with the political life of the coastal cities and appointed the rulers of the urban communities, but also imposed all sorts of restrictions on the navigation and trade of the Slavs, seeking to establish its trade monopoly on the Adriatic. The Venetian government itself set duties on goods imported and exported from Dalmatia, trying to regulate prices in their own interests. Strictly regulated export and import of goods. In addition, the coastal cities were obliged to stop trading with those countries that were hostile to Venice.
In the XVI century, the internal areas of Dalmatia captures the Ottoman Empire .
In the Campo-Formic world (1797), Dalmatia was transferred to Austria and was under its authority until 1918 (except for 1809–1813, when Dalmatia seized by Napoleon was part of the Illyrian provinces of the French Empire). Since 1815, Dalmatia was incorporated into the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Dalmatia was formed.
In 1861, a representative body of Dalmatia was established - the Dalmatian Sabor (choir. Dalmatinski sabor , German. Dalmatinischer Landtag , it. Dieta della Dalmazia ) and the executive body - the land committee (choir. Zemaljski odbor , German. Landesausschuss , IT. Giunta provinciale ), led by the land governor (him. Landeshauptmann ).
After the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918, Dalmatia (except for Zadar , captured along with some islands of Italy ) is part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (since 1929 - Yugoslavia ).
During the Second World War , after the dismemberment of Yugoslavia by Germany and its allies (1941), Dalmatia was incorporated into the Croatian state , part was ceded to Italy . In the annexed territories, there was an Italian minority, which was made up mainly of local landowners, which justified the aggressive policy of Italy towards the local population. Italy began the policy of " Italianization " of the Slavs, Slavic schools were closed, literature in Slavic languages was forbidden. Later it led to conflicts, the Italians were expelled from Dalmatia and the neighboring lands. In 1945, Dalmatia was divided between Croatia and Montenegro .
Dalmatia is one of the oldest regional and geographical entities in Europe. It is an elongated coastal coastal zone about 400 km long, stretching from Novigrad and Paklenica to Cape Oshtro on Prevlaka. The Adriatic Sea washes the shores of Dalmatia and its thousand islands.
The largest rivers of Dalmatia are the Neretva , Cetina , Krka and Zranja .
On the territory of Dalmatia there are four national parks ( Kornati , Paklenica , Krka and Mljet ), three natural parks ( Velebit , Telashchitsa and Biokovo ), as well as specialized reserves - ichthyological, ornithological, and others.
In Dalmatia, the UNESCO- protected Palace of Diocletian in Split, the city of Dubrovnik , the Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik and the historic center of Trogir .
Regions of Dalmatia
Geographically, Dalmatia is divided into North (regional centers - Zadar and Šibenik ), Middle (center - Split ) and South (center - Dubrovnik ).
On the Dalmatian coast there are many bays, sandy and pebble beaches, so it is very suitable for recreation: swimming, sunbathing, yachting, water sports and various types of fishing.
In Central Dalmatia, due to the warm sea current, the swimming season lasts from May to the end of September. The favorable climate, the beautiful coastline with the majestic islands, Roman monuments, the architecture of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance make this region one of the most beautiful in Croatia.
The main city in Central Dalmatia is Split - the second largest city in Croatia after Zagreb , most often tourists visit the “city-museum” of Trogir .
- Dalmatia / Kuzmicheva L.V. // Grigoriev - Dynamics [Electronic resource]. - 2007. - P. 258. - (The Great Russian Encyclopedia : [in 35 tons.] / Ch. Ed. Yu. S. Osipov ; 2004–2017, Vol. 8). - ISBN 978-5-85270-338-5 .
- Dalmatia // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : 86 t. (82 t. And 4 extra.). - SPb. , 1890-1907.