Setnaht (lit. " Seth the Victorious" ; the border of the XI - XII centuries. BC. ) - Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt , who ruled in 1200 / 1184-1198 / 1182 BC. e.
|Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt|
Image of Setnaht on the lid of his sarcophagus from the tomb KV14
|Dynasty||XX Dynasty (Ramessids)|
|Historical period||New kingdom|
|Successor||Ramses III →|
|Chronology||lived - at the turn of the XI - XII centuries. BC e. rules - approx. 2-4 years old XII century BC e.|
|Pedigree||father is unknown|
mother is unknown
spouse - Teia Merenysit
children - Ramesses III
|Burial place||Valley of the Kings (tomb KV14 )|
In his activities he relied on the priesthood and contributed to the completion of the next political crisis in the state.
According to the ideas of modern Egyptology , Setnaht ascended the throne after the death of Queen Tausert and was the founder of the 20th dynasty (Ramessids) . Perhaps for some time he ruled together with his son, Ramses III , who later became his successor.
To date, Egyptologists know various hieroglyphic spellings of the names and epithets of Setnahta, all of them, like other ancient Egyptian pharaohs, are divided according to a special title .
When comparing the name Setnahta with the Greek names of the pharaohs from the "Egyptia" of Manetho , there is no exact identification (there is an unproven assumption that it could be Setos).
The following is a list of the hieroglyphics and transliteration of the names of Setnaht in accordance with the work of J. von Bekerat - “List of Egyptian royal names”  [sn. 1] , the Russian-language vocalization and translation is also indicated [sn. 2]
|Name type||Hieroglyphic writing||Transliteration - Russian-language vowels - Translation|
(like a chorus )
|||kA-nXt [sn. 3] wr-pHtj - Ka-nakht ur-pekhti - “Powerful bull, with great strength”|
(as the lord of the double crown)
|||twt-xaw mj-tATnn - Tut-how mi-Tatenen - “Perfect in its manifestations, like Tatenen ”|
(like the Golden Choir)
|||sxm-xpS dr- [rqj] jw.f - Sehem-hepesh der rekuf - “ With a powerful blow he defeats rebellious enemies”|
|||Hwj-pDt-psDt an-m- [nsyt] - Hui-paget-pesedget an-em-carry - “With powerful efficiency stalking the Nine bows [sn. 4] "|
(as king of Upper and Lower Egypt)
|||Wsr-xaw-Ra stp.n-Ra - User-how-Ra setepen-Ra - “Strong in the appearances of Ra , chosen one of Ra”|
|||Same as previous inscription|
|||Wsr-xaw-Ra stp.n-Ra mrj-Jmn - User-how-Ra setepen-Ra Meri-Amon - “Strong in appearances of Ra, chosen one of Ra, beloved of Amun”|
|[five]||Same as previous inscription|
|||Same as previous inscription|
|||Same as previous inscription|
|||Wsr-xaw-Ra mrj-Jmn - User-how-Ra Meri-Amon - “Strong in the appearances of Ra, beloved by Amun”|
(like son of Ra )
|||stX-nxt [w] mrr-Jmn - Seth-naht [y] merr-Amon - “The Victorious Set , beloved by Amon ”|
|||stX-nxt [w] mrr-Jmn-Ra - Seth-nakht [y] merr-Amon-Ra - "The Victorious Set, beloved Amon-Ra"|
|||Same as previous inscription|
|[five]||stX-nxt [w] mrr-Ra mrj-Ra - Seth-naht [y] merr-Ra meri-Ra - "The Victorious Set, beloved Ra, beloved Ra"|
|[eight]||Same as previous inscription|
|"The stela of the priest Bakenhonsu" - a well-preserved stela of quartzite , found in Luxor , its dating has changed the idea of the duration of the reign of the pharaoh Setnahta. In the upper part of the stele, Setnaht is presented in a Hepresh headscarf, kneeling before the god Amon-Ra . Pharaoh offers the feather of justice to the god, while the goddess Mut , standing in the background, raises her left hand as a symbol of protection and holds the key of life in her right. Further 17 lines of hieroglyphic text are located , and in the lower right corner is shown Bakenhonsu himself, the high priest of Amon-Ra , dressed in religious clothes and praying.|
In modern Egyptology, many questions of the chronology of Ancient Egypt are controversial, for example, most dates of the reign of the pharaohs are relative, and usually, the older the reign, the less accuracy the indicated date.
The reign of Setnacht, like most of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt , is not exactly established by modern science. It was traditionally believed that Setnaht ruled for 2 years, it was this year of rule that his stele originating from Elephantine was marked. However, the greater duration of his reign may be indicated by inscription No. 271 on Mount Sinai . She suggests that Setnaht has been in power for at least 2 years and 11 months, that is, almost 3 full years. Some dating of the reign of Setnacht, according to various researchers (dates are given BC):
- 1184–1182 (2 years) - according to E.F. Vente;
- March 1186 / 1185-1183 / 1182 (2-4 years) - according to J. von Bekeratu ( German: Jürgen von Beckerath ), "Chronology of the Pharaohs of Egypt"  ;
- 1186–1184 (2 years) - according to E. Hornung, also according to J. Malek and J. Show;
- 1187–1185 (2 years) - according to E. Dodson and KA Kitchen;
- 1188-1186 (2 years) - according to N. Grimal ( French Nicolas Grimal );
- 1190-1187 (3 years) - according to R. Krauss ;
- 1190–1188 (2 years) - a generalized chronology edited by E. Hornung, R. Krauss and D. Warburton  (the most modern work on Egyptian chronology);
- 1192-1190 (2 years) - according to R. Parker;
- 1200-1198 (2 years) - according to D. Redford ;
- rules since 1200 - according to E. Bikerman  (the most authoritative chronology in Russian science, adopted in the academic publication History of the Ancient East, 1988  ).
In 2006,  the well-preserved stele of the High Priest Amon Bakenhonsu (Bak-en-Khonsu, lit. “Servant of Khonsu ”) was found, dated to the 4th year of Setnacht's reign, which further increases his term in power.
|Nubhesdeb||Ramses VI||Ramses IV||Duatentipet||Mentuherkhepeshef||Tahat||Pentaur||Ramesses VIII|
|Ramesses VII||Ramses V||Ramses IX||Bakturel|
Representatives of the XXI dynasty are highlighted in gray.
The origin of Setnacht is unknown. He certainly was neither a son, nor a brother, nor any other direct descendant, nor the previous pharaoh Saptakh , nor his predecessor Seti II , whom Setnaht, however, officially considered the last legitimate ruler.
Perhaps his father was one of the sons of Ramses II , the brother of Merneptah , unknown to modern science by name. This may be supported by the fact that Setnaht gave his son the name Ramses , probably in honor of his great grandfather. All the pharaohs of the 20th dynasty following Setnacht also received the name Ramses, and therefore the whole dynasty is called the Ramessids (that is, the Ramesses dynasty).
Setnacht was married to Queen Taye Mereniset, possibly the daughter of Merneptah , and, hypothetically, could have reached the throne through this marriage.
Setnaht was an energetic and active pharaoh who tried to continue the traditions of Ramses II the Great and managed to lead Egypt out of the next political crisis . He crushed the rebellion of the ruler of the city of Tanis, the Syrian Irsu , strengthened central authority and restored order in the country:
“The people of Egypt lived in exile outside their land. Everyone remaining inside the earth needed patronage. This went on many years earlier than other times came. The land of Egypt belonged to princes from foreign lands. One killed the other, both noble and small.
Then other times came during the years of famine. One Syrian, Irsu, rose between them as a prince (ruler) and he forced all the people to pay tribute to him. What was collected by someone was abducted by his companions (the Syrian). So they did.
They did the same with the gods as they did with the people. They did not make better sacrifices in the temples.
Then the gods turned this state of affairs into salvation. They gave the country its balance again, as its position rightly required. And they placed their son, descended from their body, the king of all the earth, on their high throne. It was the king of Setnacht, beloved by Amon .
He was like the creature of Set when it is in anger. He took care of the whole earth. If the rebels showed up, then he killed the villains that lived in the land of Ta-mer. [sn. five]
He cleared the high royal seat of Egypt and so he was the ruler of the inhabitants on the throne of the solar god Atum , raised the face of them (the inhabitants). If those who were discouraged from recognizing each brother showed up, they were locked.
"He restored order in the temples, giving sacred income for proper sacrifices to the gods, as befits their statutes."- Big Harris Papyrus
The enemies opposing the pharaoh were the rebels inside the country, who tried to rely on the mercenaries of the sechetiu - “Asians” [sn. 6] (often in modern literature the Libyans are mistakenly called the enemies of Setnacht).
To strengthen public order and central authority, Setnaht used the influence of the priesthood , attracting him to his side by gifting various property. He especially favored the Theban priests - he returned them to their former authority and large land estates, in one of his names (Uderhaur Setepenra Meriamon Setnaht Mereramon), he is twice called the favorite of Amon , the main deity of Thebes . Setnaht became famous for the usurpation of numerous buildings erected by his predecessors, and also, presumably, he built two chapels in Set-Maat (modern Deir al-Medina ). In addition, it is known that he destroyed all memory of Pharaoh Saptakh and Queen Tausert , erasing their cartouches from all the monuments where they were placed.
Probably some period, Setnaht ruled together with his son - Ramesses III , the next successor to Setnaht on the throne of Egypt.
Setnacht was buried in the Theban city of the dead in the Valley of the Kings . During his life, he prepared for himself the tomb KV11 (numbering according to the accepted modern designation system). But his son, Ramses III , chose the usurped tomb of Queen Tausert ( KV14 ) as the place of burial of Setnacht, and left KV11 for himself. What causes Ramses III to break traditions is not known, one hypothesis is that KV 11 was not completed.
Setnacht's inner sarcophagus was discovered in the tomb of KV35 . His mummy is not identified  .
In 1898, the French archaeologist Victor Loret , when examining another tomb - KV35 (belonging to Amenhotep II ), a mummy was discovered, which was probably the remains of Setnacht. Now it is established that this tomb, about the XI century BC. e. , was opened and used to store the royal mummies, which for one reason or another lost their tombs. The mummy Setnahta was separate from the others in a large room preceding the crypt , and, for some unknown reason, rested in the wreckage of a wooden boat. Since this mummy was stolen or lost at the beginning of the 20th century, it is currently not possible to find out something more specific about it and its affiliation.
Monuments and Sources
- "Stele of Elephantine" - a stele from the island city of Abu (Greek: Elephantine), dated to the 2nd year of the reign of Setnahta. It follows from the text that at the end of the reign of the XIX dynasty, Egypt was swept by the troubles that Setnaht stopped fighting against his enemies (lines 4-12 tell about historical events before and during his reign).
- The Harris' Great Papyrus is a papyrus found behind a temple in Medinet Abu and dates from the beginning of the reign of Ramses IV . It is a political and religious testament to the descendants of Pharaoh Ramses III . The most holistic document of the era of the 20th dynasty , reflecting all aspects of the socio-political, economic and cultural life of the country (the document has a length of more than 40 m, a width of 64.25 cm and consists of 79 glued sheets).
- “ Deir al-Medina Archive” is a set of documentation for the settlement of the village of the builders of the royal tombs Set-Maat (modern Deir al-Medina ), covering almost all aspects of Egyptian life of the era of XIX-XX dynasties.
- Sign number 271 on Mount Sinai .
- The Bakenhonsu Stela is a well-preserved quartzite stela found during excavations  on the territory of the ancient city of Wasset / Thebes (modern Luxor ) on December 17, 2006 , and owned by High Priest Amon - Bak en Khonsu. The text of the stele is dedicated to the contribution of Bak en Khons to the construction of the main attraction of the Theban temple of Amon (modern Karnak ) - a hypostyle hall , as well as the priest's family tree is carved. This monument is the only dated 4th year of the reign of Setnakhta (a stele of 170 by 80 cm in size, with 17 lines of hieroglyphic text).
The monuments of the Setnaht era are practically unknown, almost all bearing his name were already made under Ramesses III. Some of them:
- Usurped Tomb of Tausert ( KV14 ).
- The cave image on the rock behind the temple in Medinet Abu, on which Setnaht, together with co-ruler Ramses III, offer sacrifices to the gods and pray to the sun  .
- The ESBE reports that in the 19th century two Scarab Setnahta were still kept (in the museum at the Kiev Theological Academy and in the collection of Bilbur)  .
- In accordance with modern research and hypotheses, in the table below, there are some amendments and additions to the Bekerat list.
- Since the phonetics of the Egyptian language is poorly studied, the transcription of Egyptian words is possible only in a theory that develops and updates over time, which leads to different variants of vocalization of most words and names. Some translations are also varied, in connection with various methods used by Egyptologists to read Egyptian texts.
- In J. von Bekerat, the transliteration of kA-nXt was reduced to kn.
- That is, nine nations, in historical time the general designation of the peoples known to Ancient Egypt, sometimes including the Egyptians themselves.
- Literally - “Land being poured”, that is, the whole fruitful Ancient Egypt.
- The name designating for the Egyptians the ancient inhabitants of Syria and Palestine , including those of non- Semitic origin. Also, this vague term could include larger geographic regions.
- Jürgen von Beckerath. Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. - S. 164-165.
- “MDAIK” (Yearbook of the German Archaeological Institute in Cairo). - Berlin / Wiesbaden / Mainz: 1930. - No. 28, plate 49.
- J. Cemé The Sinai Inscriptions, second ed., Vol . 1, 1952 Page 271, plates 73.
- KA Kitchen. The inscriptions of the Ramessids in 8 volumes, 1973-90. Volume V.
- F. Pitris . Memphis, (BASE 15) 1909, plate 36.
- K.R. Lepsius . Monuments of Egypt and Ethiopia, 1849-59 Volume III.
- Harris Papyrus I. Column 75, line 7.
- Harris Papyrus I Column 75, line 7.
- Jürgen von Beckerath. Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägypten. - S. 187-192.
- E. Hornung, R. Krauss and DA Warburton Ancient Egyptian Chronology. - Leiden-Boston-Köln, 2006 . - S. 490-495.
- Bikerman E. Chronology of the ancient world. - S. 176-179.
- History of the Ancient East. The origin of the oldest class societies and the first foci of slave civilization. Part 2. Front Asia. Egypt. - S. 574-575.
- VKurs website
- Aidan Dodson. The Royal Tombs of Ancient Egypt . - Pen and Sword, 2016 .-- 357 p. - ISBN 9781473880047 .
- B.A. Turaev . Setnaht // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- History of the Ancient East. The origin of the oldest class societies and the first foci of slave civilization. Part 2. Front Asia. Egypt / Edited by G. M. Bongard-Levin . - M .: The main edition of the eastern literature of the publishing house " Science ", 1988. - 623 p. - 25,000 copies.
- Ancient East and antiquity . // Rulers of the World. Chronological and genealogical tables on world history in 4 vols. / Compiled by V.V. Erlikhman . - T. 1.
- Jürgen von Beckerath. Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. - München: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1984. - 314 p. - (Münchner ägyptologische Studien). - ISBN 3422008322 .