Pagan  (or Bagan , Burm. ပုဂံ , Kya-Var. Pjaa Gjan) is the ancient capital of the kingdom of the same name on the territory of modern Myanmar . The city is located on a dry plateau along the eastern bank of the Irrawaddy River , 145 km south-west of Mandalay , near the city of Chauk in Maguei district. Currently, on the site of the ancient city there is an archaeological zone with thousands of pagodas , temples, stupas , monasteries.
Temples in Pagan
|History and geography|
C 2019 included in the UNESCO World Heritage List  .
The city of Pagan as such does not exist - there is only Bagan airport, and several villages (Nyaun U, Ve-ji Ying, Myinkaba, Old Bagan) around and inside a huge archaeological (or rather security) zone with scattered thousands of large and small stupas and pagodas. The most significant stupas, such as Shwezigon and Lokananda Chaun, which hold the Buddha’s teeth, are covered with gold, the approaches to them are asphalted, and many pavilions are built around. Most pagodas are made of red brick and white stone and are not covered in gold. Many pagodas are very visited, and at the entrance are merchants, and boys with lanterns help to climb the stairs to the upper tiers and illuminate the corridors. Less significant pagodas are also protected and restored. In one of them hangs a plaque, reminding that here a German professor tried to tear off the frescoes and was arrested by the police. In the distance there are many very small stupas and pagodas, some of them are destroyed. In places between the temples there is a scorched desert, in places there are lonely palm trees, in some places green thickets.
According to their purpose, temples stand out - usually of a symmetrical form with four altars and statues of Buddha in each direction of the horizon, stupas with holy relics and caves (gubjauzhi) - temples with a labyrinth of corridors, painted with frescoes. Older frescoes are two-tone, late frescoes are multicolored.
There are a lot of foreign tourists in Pagan - and many pilgrims from all over the Buddhist East.
One of the temples was a favorite place of fulfillment of desires for top government generals, and was guarded by the troops. A very significant temple stands in the south of the complex - a temple built by the captive Mon Manuha of the Monks, in which a squeezed and squeezed Buddha is sitting in a narrow room - King Manoha wanted to express his attitude to the captivity.
The third king of Pagan Alaunsith built a magnificent temple with meditation niches and overlooking other temples. Every morning he meditated before the niche at the same time, until he was killed during meditation by his own son, who had taken possession of the throne after him.
The ruins of Pagan cover an area of about 40 km². Most of the buildings were built in the period of the XI - XIII centuries , when Pagan was the capital of the dynastic kingdom. King Pyinbya in 874 transferred the capital to Pagan. However, transfers of the capital in the Burmese history often happened, and King Anoratkha transferred the capital to another city. In 1057, King Anoratkh seized the capital of the monarchy , the city of Taton , and confiscated Pali manuscripts, led off Buddhist monks, artists, and artisans to turn Pagan into a cultural center (see Buddhism in Burma ). He approved the Theravada Buddhism as the state religion and sent a spiritual mission to Sri Lanka , from where the monks came and helped him complete the conversion of the whole country to Theravada. Pagan became the center of science, religion and culture, one of the largest cities in the world.
In 1287, the kingdom, refusing to pay tribute, was occupied by the Mongols as a result of how the Yuan Empire made several incursions into Pagan . The city was looted, golden pagodas were stripped, numerous religious relics were stolen. By 1369 is the last epigraphic mention of the king of Pagan. Gradually, Pagan was abandoned by the inhabitants.
|Name||position||years of government||Comments|
|Thamudarite||107 - 152||founder of the dynasty and state Pagan *|
|Pyinbya||son khelu||846 - 876||moved the capital from Tampavadi to Pagan in 849|
|Tannet||son of Pyinbya||876 - 904|
|Sale Nekve||a descendant of King Thingayaz||904 - 934||Killed King Tanneth and seized the throne|
|Teinko||a son||934 - 956|
|Nyaung u Sorahan||farmer, "cucumber king"||956 - 1001||according to legend, Teinko was killed because of a stolen cucumber, overthrown by Kunso Chaunpju, died in 1001|
|Kunso Chaunpyu||son of tanneta||1001 - 1021||married pregnant wives of a 77-year-old (?) predecessor, they gave birth to Cuiso and Soukate|
|Quiso||son of Nyaung-u Sorahan||1021-1038||overthrew Kunso Chaunp'yu who became a monk|
|Soukate||brother||1038 - 1044|
|Anoratkha||Son Kunso Chaunp'yu||1044 - 1077||killed Soukate in a duel, subordinating the monks, founded the empire|
|Solu||A son||1077-1084||taken captive by the rebels and killed a year later|
|Changzith||Brother||1084 - 1113||suppressed the monks, restored the empire|
|Alaunsithu||Grandson||1113 - 1167||1113 - 1160 (?), Strangled by Narath|
|Narathu||A son||1167 - 1170||1160 - 1165 (?), Killed by conspirators|
|Narathainkha||A son||1170 - 1173||killed by order of narapatisit|
|Narapatisichu||Brother||1174-1211||with him, Pagan flourished|
|Thilominlo||A son||1211 - 1234||began the decline of Pagan|
|Chozva||A son||1234 - 1250||continuation of the decline of Pagan|
|Uzana||A son||1250 - 1255||died while hunting for elephants|
|Narathihapati||A son||1255 - 1287||the invasions of the Mongols in 1277, 1283 and 1287, killed by one of the sons|
|Chozvo||A son||1287 - 1298||recognized the power of the Mongols in 1298, overthrown by brothers and killed, the disintegration of Pagan|
|Dries||A son||1298 - 1325||Mongol invasion in 1300-1301|
|Somunnite||A son||1325 - 1369|
* Although Anoratkha is considered the historical founder of Pagan, tradition attributes the founding of Pagan to King Thamudarita . (Chronicles of the Glass Palace). He led the refugees from the state of Shrikshetra seized by civil war, who settled in the area of modern Pagan, and became the head of a small principality.
- History of burma
- Buddhism in Burma
- Geographic Encyclopedic Dictionary: geographical names / Ed. A.F. Trёshnikova . - 2nd ed., Ext. - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia , 1989. - P. 361. - 210 000 copies. - ISBN 5-85270-057-6 .
- Buddhist USSR - sketch of the history and religion of Burma and the story of the journey 1998
- State of Pagan / from the History of Orient RAS
References in English
- Reconstructing History: Pagan Gets a Facelift
- Pictorial Guide to Pagan . 2nd ed. Rangoon: Ministry of Culture, 1975.