Avraamy (in the world of Aveky Ivanov Palitsyn     ; c. 1550   , Protasievo    - 13  September 1626   or 1627  , Solovetsky Monastery ) - Russian church-political figure, writer and publicist  . Kelar of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery  . The nephew (?) Of the chronicler Varlaam Palitsyn  .
|Birth name||Averky Ivanov Palitsyn|
|Date of Birth||OK. 1550|
|Place of Birth||Protas'evo , Yaroslavl Province|
|Date of death||September 13 (23) 1626 or 1627|
|Place of death||Solovetsky Monastery|
|Language of Works||Old Russian|
|Works on the site Lib.ru|
Abraham Palitsyn was born in the village of Protasiev   near Rostov in about 1550   . Descended from the old military noble family Palitsyn    . In the 1580s, Palitsyn served as a governor in Kolya   and, possibly, in Kholmogory  , and at the end of the decade (in 1587 or 1588    ) was subjected to disgrace : banished to the Solovki monastery , where the former governor was tonsured as a monk  . According to a number of researchers, this turn in the fate of Palitsyn was associated with his participation in the unsuccessful conspiracy of Shuisky  .
In 1594, the position of the elder Abraham (this is the name Palitsyn received when he was tonsured) somewhat improved. He moved to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery  , where in 1607 or 1608 he became a kelarem   . During the siege of the monastery by the Poles, Abraham was in Moscow, from where he assisted the besieged  . In 1610, after the fall of Vasily Shuisky , the Trinity kelar went along with the Moscow embassy near Smolensk to “push the kingdom” of Prince Vladislav   . During the trip, Abraham succeeded in obtaining confirmation of a number of privileges that the monastery had. Having confined himself to this, Kelariar did not defend the main requirements of the embassy (about ending the siege of Smolensk and about the immediate arrival of Prince Vladislav to Moscow) and left hastily, without bothering to explain to another member of the embassy, the Rostov metropolitan Philaret . According to some researchers, the departure of Abraham bordered on “treason against the Russian national cause”  . Other historians, on the contrary, believe that the kelar acted prudently: he “foresaw that they would take ambassadors for their perseverance into captivity and be sent to Poland, and therefore judged to get out in advance”  .
In 1611 Kelari turned to journalistic activities. Together with Dionysius , Archimandrite of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, Abraham wrote and sent letters to the “troubled cities”, calling for unification to fight the enemy and provide all possible support to the First Militia    . The lists of three such certificates have reached our days: from June 1611, from October 1611, and from April 1612  . In addition, Trinity kelar took an active part in the work of the Zemsky Sobor of 1613 , on which on February 21 ( March 3 ) of the same year the first Russian tsar from the house of the Romanovs was elected   .
The accession of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov could further strengthen the position of Abraham, but this did not happen. Moreover: in 1620, the elder suddenly returned to where his spiritual career began, to the Solovetsky monastery. In what status did the monk go there (as an exile? As a person who voluntarily retired?) And what is the reason for this turn of events is unclear. I.L. Andreev argued that Patriarch Filaret, who had returned from captivity, decided to settle accounts with Abraham, accused him of abuses and sent him into exile  . Undoubtedly, this point of view was not supported by modern researchers: for example, Yankel Solodkin noticed that, in all likelihood, “the famous kelar didn’t really get along with the wayward patriarch,” but there is no reason to associate Palitsyn’s departure with his behavior in the Smolensk embassy "  .
Abraham Palitsyn died on September 23 ( October 3 ), 1626   or 1627  years.
The literary heritage of Kelary Abraham includes three letters, which were written in collaboration with Archimandrite Dionysius (Zobninovsky), as well as the “History in Memoryin the future generation ”(the full name is“ History in memory of the future generation, let the blessings of God not be forgotten, like the Mother of God’s show to us, the whole blessed Mary from all the creature; and how you make your promise to the Monk Sergius, he will be from the abode yours "  ). The early revision of the initial chapters of this work refers to January - May 1619   , and the final version of the entire literary monument as a whole - to 1620  .
"History ..." consists of 77 chapters, which can be divided into three parts. The first one includes chapters 1 through 6, which set forth events from the death of Ivan the Terrible before the beginning of the siege of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery   (according to Ya. G. Solodkin, the original wording of these chapters was written with Patriarch Filaret  ). The second part of the work (chapters 7th - 52nd) is devoted to the Trinity siege   , and the third (chapters 53rd - 77th) is a concise narration about the events of subsequent years (up to 1618 inclusive) [ 21]  . Each part of the "History ..." existed in the handwritten tradition as an independent work   , and the second, known as the "Legend of the siege of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery", did not lose this status even after the first publication [comm. 1] . And indeed, the chapters that are part of the "Legends ..." are an independent essay with a complete story, introduction and conclusion. This part of the "History ..." was very popular in the XVII- XIX centuries : during this period about 226 of its lists appeared   .
According to the researchers, “History in memory of the foregoing generation” is one of the most prominent literary works of the Time of Troubles  . Its value as a historical source causes more contradictory judgments. N. M. Karamzin considered the information of “History ...” absolutely reliable, and described its author as a “chronicler <...> impartial”  . However, NI Novikov also noted that the style of Abraham was “more ornate than a similar historical truth”  . NI Kostomarov   later came to the same conclusion, mentioning in passing that the learned monk "did not witness the siege of the monastery and wrote according to rumors and legends"  . D.P. Golokhvastov  and I.Ye. Zabelin  also expressed doubts about the accuracy of the information reported by Abraham. Somewhat differently I appreciated the “History ...” S. I. Kedrov, who devoted the life and work of Abraham Palitsyn to an extensive monograph and a number of articles. According to the scientist, Trinity Kelari actually “violates the framework of historical objectivity”, exaggerating their merits. But even taking into account this shortcoming, “History in memory by the foregoing generation” has a very great cognitive value, since “it provides abundant material for studying the events of one of the greatest epochs of Russian historical life”  .
The image of Abraham Palitsyn in culture
The personality of Abraham Palitsyn attracted the attention of many cultural figures who turned to the history of the Time of Troubles. The Trinity monk is one of the main characters of Stepan Degtyarev 's oratorio Minin and Pozharsky, or the Liberation of Moscow (1811) and the novel by Mikhail Zagoskin Yuri Miloslavsky, or the Russians in 1612 (1829). Certain events of the life of Abraham were sealed by artists A. P. Safonov (“Kelar Avraamy Palitsyn in the camp of the Cossacks Trubetskoy near Moscow”) and V. M. Vasnetsov (“Archimandrite of the Trinity Lavra the Venerable Dionysius together with the kelar Avraham Pamitsyn dictate a letter about the assembly of the people who defended the people of the people to defend the people of Dionysius Paliozy, who wrote articles about the assembly of the people who defended the people of Dionysius Paladzinsky. Moscow from the Poles "). In addition, in 1913, the premiere of the film The Tercentenary of the Reign of the Romanovs ' House took place, in one of the episodes of which Avraamy Palitsyn appears; the performer of this role was made by E. Ivanov  .
- Abraham (Palitsyn). The legend of the siege of the Trinity Sergius Monastery from the Poles and Lithuania, and then the revolt in Russia . - 2nd ed. - M .: Synodal type., 1822. - 324 p.
Proclamation by Abraham Palitsyn of the decision of the Zemsky Sobor on the election of Mikhail Romanov to the kingdom (illustration from Mikhail Fedorovich 's coronation album , 1673)
Avraamy Palitsyn on the porch of the Annunciation Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin read out the decision on the election of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov to the realm (illustration from the Mikhail Fedorovich coronation album, 1673)
The grave of Abraham Palitsyn.
- It should be noted that under this name was published that part of the “History ...”, which is devoted to the Trinity siege, and the whole essay as a whole.
- Cedars, 1880 , p. ten.
- Solodkin, 1992 , p. 36
- Odessa, 1994 , p. 112
- B. N. M., 2000 , p. 170
- Now - Borisoglebsky District , Yaroslavl Region , Russia .
- Bolkhovitinov, 1818 , p. one.
- Chichagov, 1848 , p. 3
- Cedars, 1880 , p. 7
- Cedars, 1880 , p. 13.
- Cedars, 1880 , p. sixteen.
- Kostomarov, 1912 , p. 571.
- Solodkin, Filaret, 2004 , p. 165.
- Kostomarov, 1912 , p. 572.
- Solodkin, 1992 , p. 37.
- Belobrova, 1992 , p. 275.
- Andreev, 1983 , p. 295.
- Tale of Abraham Palitsyna, 1822 , p. one.
- TODRL, vol. 32, 1977 , p. 300
- Solodkin, 1992 , p. 38
- Odessa, 1994 , p. 113.
- Platonov, 1888 , p. 172.
- Platonov, 1888 , p. 168.
- Abraham Palitsyn / V. D. Nazarov. // Great Soviet Encyclopedia : [in 30 t.] / Ch. ed. A. M. Prokhorov . - 3rd ed. - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969-1978.
- Karamzin, 2004 , p. 869.
- Novikov, 1951 , p. 333
- Platonov, 1888 , p. 170
- Kostomarov, 1912 , p. 576.
- Platonov, 1888 , p. 169.
- ПБЭ, 1900 , p. 223-224.
- Vishnevsky V.E. Feature films of pre-revolutionary Russia: film graphic presentation / Vses. state Institute of Cinematography "VGIK". Cabinet kinovedeniya. - M .: Goskinoizdat, 1945. - p. 34. - 192 p. - 2000 copies
- A. S. Kelar of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra Abraham Palitsyn, a famous figure, associate and defender of the Russian land in the dark era of impostors . - SPb. : Type of. K. Kraya, 1850. - 30 p.
- Abraham // Brief literary encyclopedia / Ch. ed. A. A. Surkov . - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia , 1962. - T. 1. Aarne - Gavrilov.
- Andreev I. L. Introduction [to the section "In memory of future generations "] // Stand at the same time . - M .: Young Guard, 1983. - p. 289-299. - 495 s. - (History of the Fatherland in novels, novellas, documents). - 200 000 copies
- Andronicus (Trubachev) . Will shine in the hearts // Sergius of Radonezh: Sat. / Comp. V. A. Desyatnikov . - M .: Patriot , 1991. - p. 453-458. - 540 s. - 100 000 copies
- B. N. M. Avraamy (Palitsyn Averky Ivanovich) // Orthodox Encyclopedia / Ed. Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II . - M .: Church-Scientific Center "Orthodox Encyclopedia" , 2000. - T. I. - p. 170-171. - 752 s. - 40 000 copies
- Belobrova O. A. Dionisy Zobninovsky // SKKDR . - SPb. : Science, 1992. - T. 3/1. - p. 274–276. - 410 s. - 5 000 copies
- Vengerov S. А. Sources of the dictionary of Russian writers . - SPb. : Type of. Imp. Academy of Sciences, 1900. - T. 1. - p. 12. - 814 p.
- Eugene (Bolkhovitinov) . Avraamy Palitsyn // Historical dictionary of the former spiritual writers in Russia. - SPb. : Type of. N. I. Grech, 1818. - T. 1. - p. 1-7. - 346 p.
- Karamzin N. M. History of the Russian State . - M .: Eksmo, 2004. - 1024 p. - 8 000 copies
- Kedrov S.I. Avraamy Palitsyn . - M .: Society of Russian History and Antiquities with Mosk. Un-te, 1880. - 202 p.
- Kedrov S. I. Avraamy Palitsyn // Orthodox Theological Encyclopedia . - Petrograd, 1900. - T. I. A - Archelaus.
- Klyuchevsky V. O. I. Timofeev, Vol. Khvorostinin and A. Palitsyn // Works: In 9 tons. - M .: Thought , 1989. - T. VII. - p. 166-177. - 508 s. - 250 000 copies
- Kostomarov N. I. Trinity Archimandrite Dionisy and Kelar Avramiy Palitsyn // Russian history in the biographies of its main figures. - Ed. 6th - SPb. : Type of. M.M. Stasyulevich, 1912. - T. 1. - P. 569–576. - 594 s.
- Novikov N. I. The Experience of the Historical Dictionary of Russian Writers // Selected Works. - M. - L .: Goslitizdat, 1951. - p. 277-370. - 744 s. - 30 000 copies
- Odessa M. P. Palitsyn Avraamy // Literature and culture of Ancient Russia: Dictionary reference . - M .: Higher School, 1994. - P. 112-113. - 334 s. - 25 000 copies - ISBN 5-06-002874-7 .
- Platonov S.F. Ancient Russian legends and stories about the Time of Troubles of the XVII century as a historical source . - SPb. : Type of. V.S. Balashov, 1888. - 372 p.
- Solovyov S. М. Russian Confessors of the Enlightenment in the XVII Century // Readings and stories on the history of Russia. - M .: True, 1989. - p. 403-413. - 768 s.
- Solodkin Ya. G. Avraamy (in the world of Averky Ivanov Palitsyn) // SKKDR . - SPb. : Science, 1992. - T. 3/1. - p. 36–44. - 410 s. - 5 000 copies
- Ya. G. Solodkin. How the “History” of Abraham Palitsyn was created (polemical notes) // Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. - Nizhnevartovsk: Nizhnevartovsk State University , 2009. - № 2. - P. 40-47.
- Ya. G. Solodkin. On the Dating of the Initial Chapters of the History of Abraham Palitsyn // TODRL . - L .: Science, 1977. - V. 32. - p. 290–304. - 408 s.
- Solodkin Ya. G. Filaret (in the world Fedor Nikitich Romanov-Yuryev) // SKKDR . - SPb. : Science , 2004. - T. 3/4. - p. 161–168. - 889 s. - 1 500 copies
- Chichagov N.P. The Life of Prince Pozharsky, Kelyar Palitsyn and Citizen Minin . - SPb. : Type of. Min-va ext. Affairs, 1848. - 162 p.
- Abraham Palitsyn. History commemorating the previous generation (extraction) . Overcoming the Troubles and the strengthening of Russian statehood (electronic project). The appeal date is May 20, 2018.