Janos Hunyadi ( lat. Ioannes Corvinus , Hungarian. Hunyadi János , roman. Ioan de Hunedoara , Serbian. Sibijanin коanko, Sibinjanin Janko , , - ) - Hungarian military and political figure, governor of Transylvania , general and regent of the Kingdom of Hungary ( 1446 - 1453 ). His son Matthias Corwin was crowned by the Hungarian king.
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Janos was born in the territory of the modern Romanian region of Oltenia , in a noble family of presumably Kun (Kuman)  , Wallachian or Serbian origin  . This question seems to be very controversial, because Janos’s grandfather bore the name “Serb”  , but was a native of Wallachia. Janos’s parents are Laszlo Vaik, or Laszlo Vojk  (son of Serb), and Erzhebet Morzinai (Morzsinai Erzsébet). In 1409, Laslo Vaiku was granted the castle of Hunyadi (now Hunedoara in Romania), according to which from now on the spouses and their son received the corresponding surname.
Janos Hunyadi joined the service of the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary Sigismund . In 1437 he distinguished himself in the war with the Czech Hussites , from which he borrowed the practice of using military carts with guns mounted on them . For military merits, the emperor granted him possessions in a province bordering Turkey.
After the death of Sigismund and his heir Albrecht of Habsburg , Janos Hunyadi supported the Polish king Vladislav III Jagiellon against the young son of Albrecht Ladislav Postum  , helped him take the Hungarian throne and become Vladislav (Ulaslo) I (according to the Hungarian account)  . In gratitude, Vladislav made Janos the unofficial ruler of Hungary. In the years 1441-1442, Janos Hunyadi inflicted major defeats on the Turks in the lands of Hungary and Bulgaria.
When in the spring of 1443 Hunyadi freed the city of Nis from the Turks, he acquired a valuable ally in the person of the Albanian prince Skanderbeg . Already preparing for hostilities, Skanderbeg immediately renounced Islam , converted to Christianity again and raised an anti-Ottoman uprising in Albania ...
In 1444, the Turks requested peace near Szeged . Hunyadi agreed, but when he learned that the Venetian ships took possession of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles and thereby blocked the retreat for the Sultan, he decided to launch a new attack on the Turks . When it was discovered near Varna that the Turkish army was four times the Hungarian army, and the Venetians could not help, Hunyadi and the king had no choice but to accept the unequal battle in which King Vladislav fell. Hunyadi with the remnants of the army fled back to Hungary.
In 1445, at the Sejm of representatives of the highest Hungarian aristocracy, Hunyadi was elected Prince of Transylvania . At the end of the summer of 1445, the crusaders organized a new attack on the Ottomans. The Burgundian fleet entered the Danube Girla and, with Wallachian help, took Tutrakan , Dzhurdzhevo and Rousse , and then joined with the forces of Janos Hunyadi near Nikopol. However, Ottoman reinforcements approaching the city forced the Allies to retreat.
In 1446, Hunyadi was elected nador ( regent ) of Hungary, on behalf of the young king Ladislav Postum von Habsburg  . In 1448 , having received a gold chain from the pope, Janos Hunyadi returns to the battlefield, overthrows Vlad III Dracula (also known as Tepes) from the Wallachian throne, and soon loses the battle in Kosovo due to the betrayal of Serbian prince George Brankovich.
The Hungarian Seimas of 1449 decided to defeat the Hussite army of Jan Iskra , who was in charge of the committees Szepes and Sáros in the north and oppressed the Catholic clergy. Hunyadi opposed Iskra, the fighting was fought with varying success - and in March 1450 ended with a ceasefire in Mezőkövesd. The spark retained Kashsha  (Kassa), Lece  (Lőcse), Eperjes  (Eperjes), Bartfu (Bártfa), Körmöcbany (Körmöcbánya), Selmetsbanya (Selmecbánya) and Jojom) forced to withdraw from Hungary the most odious Czech gangs. Soon after the ceasefire, the Hussites captured and fortified the Loshonts Monastery (Losonc, Lucenec), and then engaged in the systematic robbery of the surroundings ...
In 1450, Hunyadi arrived in Pozhon  and began negotiations with Emperor Frederick III on the release of King Laszlo, whom he held as a captive, however, the negotiations were unsuccessful. In 1451, Janos Hunyadi unblocked the Turnian Castle , besieged by the army of Jan Iskra from 1448, and forced Iskra to swear allegiance to the crown.
In 1452, Hunyadi resigned as a nador, but was promoted by King Laszlo to the captain-general and hereditary counts of Bistritsky. In 1453, Constantinople fell and it became clear that the Turks would conduct the next campaign against Hungary. Hunyadi then gathered an army to stop the Turks. In 1454, he forced Sultan Mehmed II to lift the siege of the Danube fortress Smederevo , and in 1456 he temporarily stopped the advance of the enemy near Belgrade , defeating the Turkish fleet. Pope Calixtus III , having received news of this victory, ordered to ring all the bells.
However, Hunyadi soon died in Zemun (or in Ilok), as a result of the outbreak of the plague . Vlad III Tepes solemnly “celebrated” the death of his enemy, inviting bishops and boyars (with wives and servants) to a feast in the city of Targovishte , and then transferring guests to stakes  .
The tomb of Janos Hunyadi is located in the Catholic Cathedral of St. Michael in Alba Iulia  , next to the tomb of his older brother, who laid down his head in the battle for Hungary in 1440.
The Image of Janos Hunyadi in the movie
- " Prince Dracula " / "Dark Prince: The True Story of Dracula" ( USA ; 2000 ) directed by Joe Chappell , in the role of the Hungarian regent Janos - Roger Daltry .
- Magyar Katolikus Lexikon
- Mór Bán, Hunyadi. Genealogia familiei Hunyadi , Editura Gold Book, 2010. ISBN 978 963 426 182 7 .
- In different transcriptions: Serb; Sorb; Serbe. For the Serbian people, Janos Hunyadi is Yanko Sibinyanin (Јanko Sibiњanin)!
- In different transcriptions: Vojk; Voyk; Vajk; Voicu.
- Postum - “Posthumous,” for Ladislav was born after the death of Albrecht of Habsburg.
- Many non-Hungarian historians mistakenly title Vladislav Jagiellon - Laszlo V. In fact, Laszlo is the Hungarian transcription of the Slavic name Ladislav. Whereas the Hungarian transcription of the Slavic name Vladislav is Ulaslo. And for the Hungarians Vladislav Jagiellon always was and will be I. Ulászló magyar király .
- Due to the above error, sometimes referred to as Laszlo VI.
- Slovak: Kosice .
- In Slovak: Levoča .
- In Slovak: Presov .
- Fire - she is Bratislava . In the 16th century it became the capital of Hungary, and in the 20th century the capital of Slovakia.
- M. I. Devletkamov “Captain-General Janos Hunyadi” - “Rakurs” newspaper, No. 36/2006
- Mureşanu, Camil (2001). John Hunyadi: Defender of Christendom. The Center for Romanian Studies. ISBN 973-9432-18-2