Karl Karlovich Biron (actually, Buren 1684 - 1746 ) - Moscow Mayor , Moscow Governor-General (March 3, 1740 - November 1740), Ernest-Johann Biron's elder brother.
|Karl von Biron|
|him Karl von Biron (Bühren)|
Coat of arms of the Biron
|Date of Birth||May 14, 1684|
|Place of Birth||manor house Kalenzey, Kurland and Semigalia|
|Date of death||January 24, 1746 (61 years)|
|Awards and prizes|
Born in 1684 in a poor noble family, on the estate of Kalenzey, in the duchy of Courland .
In the reign of Peter the Great, he entered the Russian service, had a chance to distinguish himself and was promoted to officer. During the Northern War in one of the battles with the Swedes was captured, but managed to escape. After escaping, he went to neighboring Poland who participated in the same war and became an officer in the Polish Army  .
In 1705, he was present in the main apartment in Grodno , in the retinue of the Polish King , and was appointed by him to the royal service  .
In the year when Empress Anna Ioannovna was elected, Karl Biron, already a lieutenant colonel in the Polish army, was summoned by his suddenly elevated younger brother-favorite to Russia, and immediately promoted to major general ( November 19, 1730 )   .
A year later, it was determined to consist "with the team in Livonia ," at the governor of Lassi , and in 1733 took part in his campaign against Leschinsky  .
For participation in the Crimean campaigns (1735–1739) and the bravery found in them, he was granted first to lieutenant-generals ( January 22, 1737 ), and two years later to General- in- Chief ( September 5, 1739 )  .
Having received the rank of general-in-chief — due to friction with Field Marshal Munnich during the Crimean campaign — Carl Biron resigned, citing health. However, soon enough, under the patronage of the brother-duke, he was again appointed to the service - by the governor-general to Moscow  .
On the day of the celebration of the Belgrade Peace (February 14, 1740), Karl Biron was marked by special royal grace, receiving a portrait of the Empress and a sword, sprinkled with diamonds.
In November 1740, during a coup d'état, committed by the “worst enemy” of the Biron family, field marshal Minikh, in favor of Anna Leopoldovna , Karl Biron, like his brothers, was captured and sent under guard to Riga . There he was imprisoned in a fortress and, after an inquiry, a few months later was sent into exile - to Srednekolymsk (June 1741).
The new coup d'état — now in favor of Elizaveta Petrovna — found him on the way (November — December 1741). Elizabeth I did not feel such strong hostility towards the enemies of her enemy (that is, Minikh), and, thanks to her personal physician who was bothering about them, canceled previous orders about the fate of Charles and Gustav Bironov, assigning a less severe and not so distant Yaroslavl as a new place of reference ; On October 18, 1742, a special decree of the Empress also prescribed the return to Karl Biron of "belongings and all utensils and other things" seized during the arrest  . Two years later, in 1744, the sixty-year-old disgraced Governor-General of Moscow, honored veteran of three wars for the empire, whose whole fault was related to the favorite of the previous Empress, received all the gracious permission to move home to his Livonia estate; there, in a short time, he died - January 24, 1746 .
According to Field Marshal Munnich, under whose authority General Karl Biron served, the latter was “ zealous and serviceable, brave and cold-blooded in business ”  ; At the same time, contemporaries reproached Carl Biron for cruelty and arrogance, seeing in him “the proud Asian sultan” with all his “barbaric weirdness”  .
- Biron // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : 86 tons (82 tons and 4 extra). - SPb. , 1890-1907. - T. 3a. - p. 908-911.
- Biron, Karl // Russian Biographical Dictionary : in 25 volumes. - SPb. , 1908. - Vol. 3: Betancourt - Byakster. - p. 45.
- According to other sources, Carl Biron already had the rank of colonel in the Polish army and, when he returned to the Russian service, received the rank of lieutenant-general. See: approx. four.
- New Encyclopedic Dictionary / Pod ob. ed. Acad. K. K. Arsenyev. St. Petersburg — Pg.: F. A. Brockhaus Publishing House and I. A. Efron, 1911–1916. - T. T. 6: Berard - Bobrovnikov . - p. 744-745 stb. - 960 stb with.