Metropolitan Macarius (in the world Michael Petrovich Bulgakov ; September 19 [ October 1 ] 1816 , the village of Surkovo , Kursk province - June 9 , 1882 , Cherkizovo , Moscow province ) - bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church , church historian, theologian. From April 8 ( 20 ), 1879 - Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna . Academician of the Academy of Sciences (1854).
Portrait of an unknown artist. The beginning of the 1880s. State Historical Museum in Moscow.
|April 8 ( 20 ), 1879 - June 9 ( 21 ), 1882|
|Church||Russian Orthodox Church|
|December 10, 1868 - April 8, 1879|
|May 2, 1859 - December 10, 1868|
|May 1, 1857 - April 18, 1859|
|January 28, 1851 - May 1, 1857|
|Birth name||Mikhail Petrovich Bulgakov|
|Birth||September 19 ( October 1 ) 1816 |
|Death||June 9 (21), 1882 (65 years old)|
|Buried||Assumption Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra|
|Holy Order||June 29 ( July 11 ) 1841|
|Monasticism||February 15 ( 27 ), 1841|
|Episcopal consecration||January 28 ( February 9 ) 1851|
Demidov Prize ( 1854 )
Family and Education
The village of Surkovo was born in Kursk province (now Shebekinsky district , Belgorod region ) in a poor family of a rural priest in whom there were six children. When the future metropolitan was seven years old, his father passed away. Despite the need, the mother tried to educate the children. His lifetime biographies told that in adolescence he was a painful and dysfunctional child - until the following event happened to him: when he once hid from his comrades who offended him in the school yard, learning a lesson that was not quite clear to him, in his his head was hit by an unknown stone, which cut through the “cranial membrane on the head, causing heavy bleeding”  , after which his health suddenly improved and mental talents opened.
When he was 9 years old, he was assigned to the parish of Korochansky Theological College  . Then he was transferred to the Belgorod district religious school, which he graduated in 1831.
He graduated from the Kursk Theological Seminary (1837; in the last two years of his studies, he taught in the lower grades of the same seminary), the Kiev Theological Academy with a master's degree in theology (1841)  . Doctor of Theology (1847; for his work "Introduction to Orthodox Theology"). Honorary member of the Imperial Archaeological Society and the St. Petersburg Theological Academy .
On February 15 ( 27 ), 1841 he was tonsured a monk.
March 25 ( April 6 ) 1841 ordained to the rank of Hierodeacon .
Since June 29 ( July 11 ), 1841 he was ordained a hieromonk .
In 1841-1842, he was a teacher of Russian church and civil history of the Kiev Theological Academy .
In 1842, at the same time, rector of the Kiev-Podilsky Theological Schools.
In 1842-1844 - assistant inspector of the St. Petersburg Theological Academy ; in 1843, the Synod approved the rank of extraordinary professor of theological sciences.
In 1844-1857 - an ordinary professor of dogmatic theology of the St. Petersburg Theological Academy; in 1847 - 1849 he also taught the history of the Russian church, in 1853-1857 - the history of the Russian schism.
In 1844-1850 - inspector of the St. Petersburg Theological Academy.
December 17 ( 29 ), 1844 elevated to the rank of archimandrite .
December 20, 1850 ( January 1, 1851 ) (until 1857) was determined by the rector of the St. Petersburg Theological Academy. At the same time, he was the editor of the magazine " Christian Reading " and the main observer of the teaching of the Law of God in the capital's educational institutions.
On January 28 ( February 9 ), 1851 he was consecrated bishop of Vinnitsa, vicar of the Podolsk diocese, rector of the Shargorod St. Nicholas monastery (while Vladyka Makariy remained the rector of the academy)  . He led the creation in 1853 at the Academy of a special department to combat the Old Believers.
From May 1 ( 13 ), 1857 - Bishop of Tambov and Shatsky .
From April 18 ( 30 ), 1859 - Bishop of Kharkov and Akhtyr .
On April 8 ( 20 ), 1862 , he was elevated to the rank of archbishop .
July 20 ( August 1 ), 1868 was called to attend the Holy Synod .
From December 10 ( 22 ), 1868 - Archbishop of Lithuania and Vilensky .
According to the Highest Personal Decree of the Holy Synod of April 8 ( 20 ), 1879  - Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna, a member of the Holy Synod.
Death and Burial
He died on June 9 ( 21 ), 1882 at 11 hours 35 minutes in the afternoon “from an apoplexy blow ”  in the bishop’s house in the village of Cherkizovo (now within Moscow); on the day of his death, he felt good and “was even revived more than usual”  . The funeral service was performed on June 14 at the Miracle Monastery ; headed by the Archbishop of Warsaw Leonti (Lebedinsky) ; buried on June 15 of the same year in the crypt of the Assumption Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra  .
Administrative and scientific activities
Metropolitan Manuel (Lemeshevsky) described the activities of Metropolitan Makarii as rector of the St. Petersburg Theological Academy:
Through a series of prudent measures, he established a definite and unchanging order of student life. Students were not burdened by the rigor of orders, they loved their boss. According to the students themselves, “it was impossible to imagine a more direct, honest and frank teacher-teacher.” No flattery, no servility, beyond a direct relationship to the cause, was available to him. Important in the matter of educating students Macarius attached to church services. He took all measures to make the service in the academic church as solemn as possible, and if possible he tried to participate in the service.
Vladyka Makarios was known as a capable and energetic administrator. At the St. Petersburg Theological Academy, he paid great attention to improving the financial situation of teachers and students, arranging the academic library. During the administration of the Tambov diocese, he was actively engaged in streamlining the clerical work, which was in a state of neglect before him. In the Kharkov diocese, he was the editor-in-chief of the Christian Reading magazine; on his initiative, a church library was created, which could be used by both clergy and secular people; With the active participation of Vladyka, a monastery was founded in the name of the holy great martyr Dimitry of Solunsky in the village of Ryasnoye. The number of public schools in the diocese during its administration has quadrupled (in total, 405 schools operated by 1869). Vladyka sought to raise both the educational level of the Kharkov clergy and the religious piety of the flock - he restored several previously existing religious processions in the diocese. During his stay at the Lithuanian Chair, 293 churches were built, renovated and consecrated. As the Moscow Metropolitan, he proved himself a supporter of putting things in order in the church economy and strengthening the preaching activity of the clergy.
In an article about Bishop Makaria, placed in the dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron, special attention is paid to his moderately liberal views, which caused sharp rejection by the most conservative church leaders:
Everywhere the spiritual mob treated him with hostility. In Moscow, one newspaper made the metropolitan persecution a specialty, muddled all his speeches, and clearly hinted at his political views. Representatives of obscurantism were right in that the learned and noble hierarch could not belong to their black camp. In all important cases, he went to meet the needs of society and move forward ... In the sixties, Macarius, already an archbishop, took part in the reform of the theological school and ardently defended the need for free development in accordance with the requirements of the time. His views on staging a case in high and lower church schools aroused hatred among retrogrades.
Metropolitan Manuel noted that when Archimandrite Makarii was a member of the St. Petersburg Spiritual Censorship Committee (1844-1848), he earned "a reputation as a highly humane, impartial, and accurate censor." He was an active supporter of the adoption of the liberal academic charter of 1869, which received the informal name "Makaryevsky charter."
However, Metropolitan Macarius gained the greatest fame as a scientist, author of capital works in the field of theology and history. His main historical work - “The History of the Russian Church” in 12 volumes (the 13th was not completed in connection with his death) - was published in 1883 (reprinted in 1994 - 1996 ). Of his theological works, the two-volume work “Orthodox Dogmatic Theology” (in 1912 translated into New Syriac by the mission of the Orthodox Church in Urmia  ) and “Introduction to Orthodox Theology” are best known.
Prizes of Metropolitan Macarius
According to Metropolitan Manuel,
distinctive features of his character were kindness and affection. The kindness of his soul was actually manifested in the form of donations of his funds to schools, to build temples, to libraries and other purposes. But a particularly remarkable donation by ep. Macarius made in 1867. He kept all the money that he received from his writings until he collected a considerable amount (120 thousand rubles). Then he put this amount in the State Credit Institution forever and bequeathed after his death to establish annual bonuses for the interest from this amount to encourage domestic talents dedicated to the cause of science and general useful knowledge.
Prizes of Metropolitan Macarius were awarded in 1884 - 1917 . There were four Makariev Prizes. One was awarded by the Academy of Sciences (in all branches of science), two by the Holy Synod (for textbooks and teaching aids on spiritual disciplines), and one by the Kiev Theological Academy (for work in the field of spiritual literature).
In 1997, by the efforts of the Russian Orthodox Church , the Moscow government and the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation, the Makariev Prize was renewed. It is awarded in five nominations: “History of the Orthodox Church”, “History of Russia”, “History of Moscow and historical studies of local lore”, “History of Orthodox countries and peoples”, as well as a textbook or study guide representing a contribution to science in one of these nominations.
- History of the Kiev Theological Academy. St. Petersburg, 1843.
- The history of the Russian schism, known as the Old Believers. St. Petersburg, 1855.
- History of the Russian Church. SPb., Printing House of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1857
- The history of Christianity in Russia until the Equal-to-the-Apostles Prince Vladimir. St. Petersburg, 1846.
- Makarii (Bulgakov), Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna. History of the Russian Church 12 volumes. St. Petersburg, 1883. (reissue - 1994-1996).
- Orthodox dogmatic theology. Volume 1. St. Petersburg, 1883.
- Orthodox dogmatic theology. Volume 2. St. Petersburg, 1883.
- A guide to the study of Christian Orthodox dogmatic theology. M., 1913.
- Introduction to Orthodox theology. SPb., 1913.
- An Essay on the History of the Russian Church in the Pre-Tatar Period: (Article from "Christian Reading.") St. Petersburg: type. K. Zhernakova, 1847
- Literary works of Maxim the Greek: Article ... Macarius, Archbishop. Litas. and vilen. St. Petersburg, 1872
- Words and speeches made in 1869-1878 St. Petersburg, 1890.
- Words and speeches made in the Moscow diocese in 1879-1882 St. Petersburg, 1890.
- Words and speeches made in 1841-1868 St. Petersburg, 1891.
- Patriarch Nikon in the correction of church books and rites. - 1881
- "Moscow Diocesan Wisdom". 1879, No. 17, p. 140.
- Orthodox Encyclopedia. - Volume XLII LVIV CATHEDRAL - MAXIM, BLJ., MOSCOW .. - M. , 2016 .-- S. 487.
- Barsov N.I. Makarii (Bulgakov) // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Galkin A.K. Vinnitsa Vicariate // Orthodox Encyclopedia. T. VIII. M., 2004. S. 115-116.
- New Archpastor of Moscow. // " Moscow Vdomosti ". April 17, 1879, No. 96, p. 3.
- “ Governmental Newsletter ”. June 11 ( 23 ), 1882 , No. 126, p. 1.
- “Governmental Newsletter”. June 15 ( 27 ), 1882, No. 129, p. 2.
- “Governmental Newsletter”. June 19 ( July 1 ) 1882, No. 133, p. 2.
- Kessel G. M. “The book of grains” - an anthology of East Syrian writing // Symbol, No. 55. P. 332, approx. sixteen.
- Abramovich D. I. On the writings of Metropolitan Makarii (Bulgakov) in the field of ancient Russian literature. - Pg. , 1918. - 15 p.
- Barsov N.I. Makarii (Bulgakov) // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Kiparisov V.F. Metropolitan of Moscow Makarii (Bulgakov) as a preacher . - Sergiev Posad, 1893.
- Lebedev N. A. Makariy, former Metropolitan of Moscow: Biographical sketch. - 2nd ed., Rev. and add. - SPb. , 1882. - 41 p.
- Makariy (Bulgakov) on the site "Russian Orthodoxy"
- Makarii (Bulgakov) // Russian theologian writers. Church historians. Researchers and interpreters of scripture. Bibliographic index. 2nd ed. M.: Pashkov House, 2001.
- Makarii (Mikhail Petrovich Bulgakov) // Russian Biographical Dictionary : At 25 volumes / under the supervision of A. A. Polovtsov. 1896-1918.
- Fund for Prizes in Memory of Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomensky Makarii (Bulgakov)
- http://www.rtvp.ru/radioarchiv/radioarchiv_235.html Monk and scholar. Metropolitan Macarius // Radio "Moscow Region". National hero (program). 2006 (inaccessible link)
- Proceedings of Makarii (Bulgakov) on the website of the Tver diocese