The Flanders House ( Fr. Maison de Flandre ) is a French noble family, also known as the House of Baudouin ( Fr. Maison de Baudouin ) or Baudouinides ( Fr. Baudouinides ).
|Period||IX century - 1415|
|Title||Count of Flanders , Count of Hainaut , Count of Namur , Count of Boulogne|
|Ancestor||Lidris or Liderik, sir Harlebeck|
The origin of the first Earl of Flanders, chroniclers report that his ancestor was Lidris or Liderik, sir Harlebecki, who received the barren land from Karl the Great, which cost nothing and was covered with swamps. His son Engeran, and then his grandson Odase (Audacer), had, like him, the title of royal forest ranger (forestarii). It is known that in 836 a certain count Lideric died and that Engeran, known for his participation in the strife and intrigue of the last Carolingians, bore, like Odase, the title of count and secular abbot of the monastery of Saint-Pierre in Ghent.  The son of Count Odase was Baudouin (Baldwin) I. 
Counts of Flanders
Baudouin (Baldwin) I Iron Hand (d. 879)  apparently already possessed considerable power in the northern regions of the Scheldt basin, where he fought with the Normans. In 862, he abducted the daughter of King Charles II of France, Lysy Judith, the widow of the Anglo-Saxon king Ethelwulf , from Senlis, where she was under the supervision of several clerics. Despite Karl’s protests, his refusal to agree to this marriage and the threat that he would deprive Baldwin of his possessions, Baudouin refused to marry his wife and pretended to enter into an alliance with the Normans, after which Karl was forced to admit his son-in-law. Due to this, Baudouin was able to add to his ancestral possessions the rich heritage of his wife and became the first Earl of Flanders.
Of the sons of Baudouin I, the youngest, Raul (c. 867 - June 17, 896) was the Earl of Cambrai , after the killing of which the county was inherited by the husband of his only daughter, Isaac (d. C. 948). The eldest son of Baudouin I, Baudouin (Baldwin) II Bald (863/865 - September 10, 918) inherited Flanders. Taking advantage of the cessation of the Norman attack, he set about expanding the borders of his state to the south. He actively intervened in the feuds that occurred in France after the overthrow of Emperor Charles III of Tolstoy , balancing between Ed Neustrian and Karl Prostovaty . At the same time, Baudouin was not very picky about the means.  As a result, Baudouin II was able to extend his power to the areas of Curtre , Tournai , Artois , Ternois and Boulogne .  As a result, by the end of his reign Flanders began to border Vermandois and Normandy , in addition to which he owned a significant part of the sea coast between Zwin and Somme . In addition, he married the Anglo-Saxon princess, daughter of Alfred the Great , laying the foundation for relations between Flanders and England .
The eldest son of Baudouin II, Arnulf I the Great (885/889 - March 27, 965), who inherited his father in 918 , completed his father's work. He finally took possession of Arras in 932–933, after 941 - Douai , and in 948 - Montreux-sur-Mer . He was one of the most powerful and wealthy princes of his time. He appropriated the title of Margrave , which was used by his successors until the beginning of the XII century . But on the path of further conquests was the Duchy of Normandy , blocking his path to the south on the Kansch River. He tried by all means at his disposal to destroy this opponent. For this, Arnulf entered into an alliance against the Duke of Normandy William I with the kings Louis IV of Zamorsky and Lotar . As a result, Arnulf ordered the assassination of Duke William during a date in Pikigny on December 17, 942 . But in the fierce struggle that broke out between Flanders and Normandy, both sides proved equally strong and failed to defeat each other.
In 958, Arnulf gave up power in favor of his son Baudouin (Baldwin) III Young (c. 940 - January 1, 962), but he died unexpectedly in 962 , after which Arnulf returned to power again.
After his death in 965, he was succeeded by the young son of Baudouin III, Arnulf II (961/962 - March 30, 988). King Lothar attempted to take advantage of Count Arnulf's infancy and attempted to capture Flanders by invading it. The king was able to capture Teruana, Saint-Paul, Douai and Arras, but after the intervention of Emperor Otto I , called by Bishop of Cambrai , he was forced to retreat and lost the captured lands. After the death of the King of France, Louis V in 987, Arnulf II supported the claim to the throne of Charles of Lorraine and did not recognize the choice of King Hugo Capet . As a result, Hugo set out on a trip to Flanders, capturing most of it. As a result, Arnulf was forced to reconcile himself and recognize himself as a vassal of France.
Arnulf in 988 was succeeded by his eldest son, Baudouin (Baldwin) IV Bearded (c. 980 - May 30, 1035). He left the southern part of his possessions in the hands of vassals, Earls of Gin, Esden and Saint Paul, focusing his efforts on expanding Flanria to the east. In 1006, he captured Valenciennes . Only in 1007, Emperor Henry II managed to get the city back with the help of the King of France and the Duke of Normandy. By 1012, the emperor was forced to give Baudouin the island of Valjeren with four other islands (in Zelland) and the area of the Four Counties, which marked the beginning of the so-called imperial Flanders , as well as the Margrave of Valenciennes , which made Baudouin IV also a vassal of the emperor.
His son Baudouin (Baldwin) V Lilsky (c. 1012 - September 1, 1067) took advantage of the rebellion of the Duke of Lorraine Gottfried Bearded , having captured the entire area located between Scheldt and Dendra , managing to keep it behind him. He was married to the daughter of King Robert II of France. In the years 1060-1065 he was regent of France under the young king Philip I. He pacified the rebellion against Philip, during the entire time of his reign he controlled the income of the kingdom. In addition, Baudouin refused to wage war with Normandy, betraying her daughter Matilda as her duke William , the future king of England. Baudouin was also able to profitably marry his sons. The eldest, Baudouin (Baldwin) VI (c. 1029 - July 10, 1070) in 1051 married Rishild, widow of Count Eno German , thanks to which he inherited the county despite protests from the emperor. The younger, Robert I of Frisia (1031 - October 13, 1093), in 1063 married Gertrude of Saxony, widow of the Earl of Holland Floris I , thanks to which he became the guardian of the young Count Dirk V.
After the death of his father in 1067, Baudouin VI united Flanders and Hainaut. But after his death in 1070, his sons Arnulf III (c. 1055 - February 22, 1071) and Baudouin II (c. 1056 - June 8, 1098) remained young under the care of their mother. And this was decided by Brother Baudouin VI's brother, Robert, who organized the uprising in 1070 , thanks to which he captured Ghent and declared himself Count of Flanders. Arnulf and his mother turned to the king of France, Philip I, for help, also receiving the support of Count Hereford William of Fitz-Osbourne , who led the army from Normandy. On February 22, 1071, a battle took place near Mount Kassel, as a result of which Arnulf and William died. King Philip soon reconciled with Robert I and recognized him as Count of Flanders, and Richard and Baudouin fortified at Hainaut, calling for the emperor's help. After a long struggle Baudouin II reconciled with his uncle. He became the ancestor of the Hainaut line of the Flanders House.
Robert I moved the county capital to Bruges . Under him, Flanders finally became a Christian country. He supported his stepson Dirk V against the Bishop of Utrecht and the Duke of Lower Lorraine, Gottfried Humpback . He was at enmity with the King of England, William I, to fight against which Robert made an alliance with the King of Denmark, Knud VI , by marrying his daughter Adela . In 1087-1090, he undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
The eldest son of Robert I, Robert II of Jerusalem (c. 1065 - October 5, 1111) inherited his father in 1093. He was able to further expand his possessions. In 1097, Robert took part in the First Crusade . He became close to France, seeing in her an ally against the king of England.
His son Baudouin VII (1093 - June 17, 1119) succeeded his father in 1111 . He continued his father's policy towards England. Baudouin died in 1119 from a wound he received in Normandy. He didn’t leave any children, and he entrusted the throne to his sister’s son, Danish Prince Charles I the Good , raised at the Flanders court.
After the death of Charles the Good, William of Ypresky (c. 1070–1165), the illegitimate son of Robert II's brother, Philip van Lo (d. 1127), also claimed the throne. He was the last representative of the Flanders branch of the house.
Baudouin II (c. 1056 - June 8, 1098) became the founder of the second house of Hainaut. After an unsuccessful fight with his uncle, Count of Flanders, Robert I, he made peace with him. In 1097, he went on the First Crusade, during which he died.
He left several sons and daughters. From the youngest son, Arnold, went the branch of the seniors de Rel, dying away in 1287/1288. And the eldest son, Baudouin (Baldwin) III (1188-1220) inherited Hainaut. He claimed rights to Flanders after the death of Baudouin VII, but to no avail.
He was succeeded by the eldest son Baudouin (Baldwin) IV Builder (c. 1108 - November 8, 1171). During his infancy until 1127, his mother, Yolanda Geldern, was the regent of the county. She achieved the engagement of her son with Alice Namurskaya (c. 1115–1169), whom Baduen married around 1130. Thanks to this marriage, in 1189, the county of Namur after the suppression of the Namur house passed to the son of Baudouin IV.
Baudouin IV unsuccessfully claimed rights to Flanders in 1127 after the death of Charles the Good, and then in 1128 after the death of William Cliton . In 1147, Baudouin again tried to capture Flanders, taking advantage of the fact that her Count Thierry of Alsace went on a Crusade. But the attempt ended in nothing. In 1151, Thierry and Baudouin made peace. In 1161, Baudouin married his son Baudouin to his daughter Thierry Margarita, which allowed him to get Flanders in 40 years.
Counts of Hainaut, Flanders and Namur
Baudouin V (1150 - December 17, 1195) inherited his father in Hainaut in 1171 . He became close with his brother-in-law, the Earl of Flanders, Philip I of Alsace , and concluded an alliance treaty with him in 1177 . In 1180, Baudouin married his daughter Isabella to the King of France, Philippe II Augustus , who received Artois as a dowry. In 1189, Baudouin received from the emperor the county of Namur, elevated to Margrave, and in 1191, after the death of Philip of Alsace, he received Flanders. For Namur, he had to wage a war with his wife's brother Henry I of Namur , from which he emerged victorious in 1194 .
Baudouin V left several sons. Flanders and Hainaut inherited his eldest son Baudouin (Baldwin) IX (1171-1205), Namur received his second son, Philip I (1175 - October 12, 1212).
Having become a count, Baudouin IX, unlike his father, became a supporter of the king of England. In 1200, he succeeded under the Perron Treaty in the north of Artois, as well as gaining sovereignty over Gin, Arr and Bethune. And in 1202, he, together with his younger brothers Heinrich and Estasch, went on the Fourth Crusade, leaving Philip of Namursky as regent of Flanders, and his late brother Willem de Vershin as regent of Eno. As a result of this campaign, Baudouin was elected emperor of the Latin Empire , but in 1205 he was captured, where he died. In the Latin Empire, he was succeeded by his brother Henry (c. 1176 - July 11, 1216). Another brother, Eustache (d. After 1217) in 1210-1216 was regent of the Kingdom of Thessalonica .
Baudouin IX left only two daughters, Jeanne (1188 - December 5, 1244) and Margarita II (June 2, 1202 - February 10, 1280), who successively ruled in Flanders and Hainaut. The other Baudouin IX brothers left no children.
There was still a line of Seniors Seburg, whose ancestor was the brother of Baudouin V, Henry (d. After 1207). It died out in the 1st half of the 13th century .
There was also a side line of the lords de Vershin, whose ancestor was the illegitimate son of Baudouin IV de Hainaut - Willem de Vershin, the regent of Hainaut in 1201-1205. The last representative of this line, Jean III de Vershin (d. October 25, 1415), died in the Battle of Agincourt .
Houses possibly descended from the Flanders House
Some specialists remove the following births from the Flanders House:
- Boulogne House . Count of Boulogne Adalulf (d. 933) is considered its ancestor. Perhaps he was the son of Baudouin II the Bald, Count of Flanders. But there are other versions of its origin.
- Counts of Pontier , Saint-Paul , seniors de Coucy . Their possible ancestor  , Angerrand I, Count of Ghent, Curtre and Tournai in 853-866 and Count de Hainaut in 870-880, was the son of Count Angerrand (d. 851), grandfather Baudouin I Iron Hand. A possible grandson of Angerran I was Angerran II, Count Eno in 920-925.
- Pyrrhene, p. 48
- This name is most often translated into Russian in German transcription - Baldwin, but in French transcription the name sounds like Baudouin.
- In early documents he is called the Balduinis Iron (Balduinis Ferreus).
- By order of Baudouin II, Count Herbert I de Vermandois , who was responsible for the death of Raul, brother of Baudouin, was killed. (Pyrrhen, p. 50).
- The counts of Boulogne were subordinated to the power of the count of Flanders.
- Sur l'origine des comtes de Ponthieu et la diffusion du prénom Enguerrand (inaccessible link) .
- List of rulers of Flanders
- List of counts of Hainaut
- County Flanders
- Hainaut County
- Latin empire
- List of Earls of Boulogne
- Agamov A. M. Flanders houses // Dynasties of Europe 400—2016: The complete genealogy of possessive houses. - M., URSS, 2017. 1120 p. ISBN 978-5-9710-3935-8 - S. 59-62
- Pirenne A. Medieval cities of Belgium. - SPb. : Publishing group "Eurasia", 2001. - 512 p. - 2000 copies. - ISBN 5-8071-0093-X .