Kigo ( 季 語 語 , seasonal word) - in the classic Japanese haiku , ranga and renko - a word or expression indicating the time of year to which the picture depicted in the text refers. Some kigos explicitly attach the text to the time of the year, for others, this correlation is only due to tradition: for example, the image “moon in haze” refers the poem in which it is used to spring , although this natural phenomenon in itself can occur at any time of the year. In order to make poets and readers easier to navigate seasonal words, dictionaries of kigo - saiziki were compiled .
Presentation and reference to the seasonal theme have always been an important part of Japanese culture in general and poetry in particular. The ancient Japanese anthology of Manyoshu contains several sections on the seasons. By the time of the appearance of the first Japanese court anthology of Kokinshu, the sections on the seasons had already become significant parts of the Manyoshu anthology.
The tradition of compiling “concatenated lines” -range arose by the middle of the Heian period and developed throughout the Middle Ages . By the 13th century, there was a set of stringent rules for writing rang; it was strictly determined the need for part of the stanzas to send the listener to a certain time of the year, depending on the place of these stanzas in the rank structure. In accordance with these rules, the hokku (the first opening stanza of the rang) was supposed to contain the designation of the time of year at which the rang was written.
In the 15th century, a less rigorous form of rang emerged - haikai-no ranga ("playful concatenated lines"). By the end of the 19th century , thanks to the work of Masaoka Shiki , the first stanza of the rank was separated from the rest of the poem, turning into an independent poetic form - haiku.
For the haiku of the Basho era, the use of kigo was mandatory. In the new Japanese poetry and the haiku of Western countries, the need for seasonal words remains in question. In Russia, none of the well-known haiku authors insists on the need for kigo, however, Aleksey Andreev notes that a certain background against which a picture or scene depicted in a haiku is usually marked clearly in haiku, and thus we can talk about performing the function of kigo the word environment. " An intermediate position on the question of kigo, suggesting that any (and not only sanctified by tradition) an indication of the time of year, be ironically demonstrated in the haiku of Marina Hagen :
- seasonal word - bath
- with hot water
- seasonal word - bath