The Civil War in Afghanistan is a series of armed conflicts in the course of the struggle for political power in Afghanistan , ongoing since the late 1970s. The war began on April 27, 1978, when the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) came to power as a result of a military coup known as the April Revolution.
|Civil War in Afghanistan|
|date||from April 27, 1978|
(41 years, 3 months, 14 days)
For 2018, the conflict continues (seventh phase) . Traditionally, historiography is divided into the following stages:
- The civil war in Afghanistan (1978-1979) , during which opposition groups came to power as a result of the April Revolution .
- The Afghan War (1979-1989) , the continuation of the previous stage, marked by the presence in the country of the contingent of Soviet troops, introduced to support the pro-Soviet regime, and the broad internationalization of the conflict; Opposition assistance was provided by the USA, Pakistan and several other states.
- The civil war in Afghanistan (1989-1992) , the third stage of hostilities, during which, after the withdrawal of Soviet troops, the government army, with the material support of the USSR and with the participation of Soviet military advisers, fought against the armed opposition, which was still supported from abroad.
- The civil war in Afghanistan (1992-1996) , the conflict between the opposition groups that won as a result of the third stage of the war and field commanders.
- The civil war in Afghanistan (1996-2001) , the conflict between the coalition of field commanders called the Northern Alliance and the movement of religious fundamentalists known as the Taliban .
- War in Afghanistan (2001–2014) - the military operations of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) with the support of the Northern Alliance against the Taliban, accused of harboring terrorists and aiding the spread of fundamentalism in the September 11, 2001 investigation. The Taliban went over to guerrilla warfare.
- War in Afghanistan (since 2015) - the main forces of NATO are being withdrawn from Afghanistan, there remains a 13,000-strong contingent to support the government of Afghanistan. The struggle against anti-government groups continues.
From 1933 to 1973, Afghanistan had a long period of peace and relative stability  . At that time, the country was a monarchy, led by King Zahir Shah , belonging to the Afghan Barakzai dynasty   . In the 1960s , relatively free parliamentary elections are held in Afghanistan, which was a constitutional monarchy . 
Zahir Shah , who will be the last king of Afghanistan, was peacefully overthrown by his cousin Muhammad Daoud in 1973 after a wave of dissatisfaction with the monarchy in urban areas of Afghanistan arose  . There have been several scandals and allegations of corruption and poor economic policies regarding the ruling dynasty. Khan turned the monarchy into a republic and became the first president of Afghanistan . He was supported by the faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), the Communist Party , which was founded in 1965 and has strong ties with the Soviet Union . Neamatollah Nojumi writes in his book “The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War, and the Future of the Region”:
The creation of the Republic of Afghanistan increased Soviet investment in Afghanistan and the influence of the PDPA in the military and civilian government  .
By 1976 , alarmed by the growing power of the PDPA and the party's strong attachment to the Soviet Union, Daud tried to reduce the influence of the PDPA  . He dismissed the PDPA members from government posts, appointing conservative elements instead, and finally announced the dissolution of the PDPA and the arrest of high-ranking party members  .
These events were followed by the April Revolution and the beginning of an active armed conflict.
On April 17, 1978, prominent PDPA activist Mir Akbar Khaibar , the former editor-in-chief of the opposition authorities of the Parchamist newspaper , was shot dead. On April 19, his funeral turned out to be a demonstration against the regime of President Mohammed Daoud (according to some reports, about 20 thousand people took part in it), because there were rumors of involvement in the murder of the Daoud secret police, and led to a clash of demonstrators with the police. Daud ordered the arrest of the PDPA leaders. On the night of April 26, Nur Mohammed Taraki and Babrak Karmal were arrested. Four hours later, Hafizullah Amin, already under house arrest, was sent to prison. On the morning of April 26, all four Kabul newspapers issued a government message saying: “Having examined the statements, speeches, slogans, appeals, actions and arbitrariness that took place during the funeral of Mir Akbar Khaibar, the government regarded them as provocative and unconstitutional ... by persons accused the criminal offenses and the arrested security agencies are Nur Mohammed Taraki, Babrak Karmal, Dr. Shah Wali, Dastagir Panjshiri, Abdul Hakim Sharayi, Hafizullah Amin, Dr. Zamir Safi. Upon the arrest of these persons, documents of interest were seized in their apartments. An active search for a number of other individuals continues. ” However, Amin, with the help of his son, handed over to the faithful PDPA military units the order prepared in March for the start of an armed uprising. After that, the PDPA supporters in the midst of the armed forces held an armed action to change the government  .
On April 27, 1978 , the PDPA and its loyal military units killed Daud, his closest relatives and bodyguards in the confrontation, and occupied the capital, Kabul  . The PDPA chose the moment for the coup: the weekend, when many public servants rest; Daud was not able to fully activate the loyal units of the armed forces to counter the coup  .
It is believed that the new government of the PDPA, led by the revolutionary council, did not enjoy the support of the masses  . Because of this, a doctrine was soon announced and implemented, which implied a struggle against any political dissent, whether inside or outside the party  . The first communist leader in Afghanistan, Nur Mohammad Taraki , was arrested and then killed by Amin . Amin was known for his freedom-loving and nationalistic views, and was also seen by many as a ruthless leader. He was charged with the killing of tens of thousands of peaceful Afghans in Puli Charkhi and other prisons. In one day, 27,000 executions of political prisoners were carried out in this prison. 
The Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee at a meeting on October 31, 1979 addresses this situation:
|In an effort to gain a foothold in power, Amin, along with such ostentatious gestures as the beginning of the development of a draft constitution and the release of some previously arrested persons, has in fact expanded the scale of repression in the party, army, state apparatus and public organizations. He clearly leads to the elimination from the political arena of almost all prominent party and state leaders, whom he considers to be his real or potential opponents ... Amin’s actions cause growing discontent of progressive forces. If earlier members of the Parcham group opposed him, now they are joined by supporters of the Halk, individual representatives of the state apparatus, army, intelligentsia, and youth. This creates uncertainty in Amin, who is looking for a way out of intensifying repressions, which further narrows the social base of the regime  .|
At a meeting of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee on December 12, 1979, a decision was made to eliminate Amin  .
- https://books.google.com/books?id=k86jifnA3oYC&pg=PA5&dq=osprey+russia+afghanistan&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false (inaccessible link from 08/21/2018 [354 days])
- War, Politics and Society in Afghanistan, 1978-1992 - Antonio Giustozzi - Google Books
- Life under Taliban cuts two ways - CSMonitor.com
- ア ー カ イ ブ さ れ た コ ピ ー . Date of treatment June 14, 2013. Archived April 30, 2013.
- Mohammad Zahir Shah, Last Afghan King, Dies at 92 - The New York Times
- Profile: Mohamed Zahir Shah | World news | The guardian
- Neamatollah Nojumi, 2002 , pp. 38–42.
- Neamatollah Nojumi, 2002 , pp. 39.
- Soviet revisionism and the April (1978) revolution in Afghanistan (Inaccessible link) . Date of treatment February 14, 2019. Archived December 23, 2008.
- Neamatollah Nojumi, 2002 , pp. 41.
- Neamatollah Nojumi, 2002 , pp. 42.
- Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan - Robert D. Kaplan - Google Books
- Afghanistan Modernization History: A View from Moscow
- Decision of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee No. P176 / 125 of December 12, 1979
- Neamatollah Nojumi. The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War, and the Future of the Region. - 1st ed. - New York: Palgrave, 2002.