Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid , abbr. GHB , also 4-hydroxybutanoic acid - an organic compound , a natural hydroxy acid , which plays an important role in the central nervous system of a person, as well as found in wine, citrus fruits and others. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid can be used as an anesthetic and sedative , but in many countries it is outlawed.
|γ-hydroxybutyric acid |
|Traditional names||4-hydroxybutyric acid|
|Chem. formula||C 4 H 8 O 3|
|Molar mass||104.10 g / mol|
|T. melt.||15-18 ° C|
|T. Kip. '||178-180 ° C, decomposes|
|Steam pressure||0.13 mmHg Art.|
|Reg. CAS number||591-81-1|
|Reg. EINECS number|
GHB is a colorless, odorless liquid.
The starting reagent for producing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is its anhydride , gamma-butyrolactone (GBL).
It is used in medicine as a sedative and nootropic in the form of sodium oxybutyrate .
There is also a lithium preparation with the inclusion of GHB - lithium oxybutyrate .
GHB is a depressant used as a psychoactive substance  . It is often used in the form of a salt - sodium oxybutyrate , other common options are potassium oxybutyrate and other salts of GHB, as well as GBL.
The effects of drinking are compared with the effects of alcohol and MDMA ( euphoria , disinhibition , hypersensitivity, empathogenic states), in large doses, GHB can cause nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, psychomotor agitation, visual disturbances, shortness of breath, amnesia, unconsciousness and death  . Deaths are usually associated with a combination of a substance with alcohol or other depressants. In particular, death due to vomiting in a state of deep sleep is possible   . The effects of consumption usually last from one and a half to three hours  .
In small doses it is used as a stimulant by visitors to nightclubs  .
Sodium oxybutyrate is considered a drug used by rapists to target the victim  . It is very salty, but it does not have color and odor  , which is what the attackers who add the drug to drinks use.
Some athletes use sodium oxybutyrate and GBL, since scientific studies have shown that GHB increases the level of growth hormone in vivo  . It was shown, in particular, how GHB doubles hormone secretion in healthy young men  . Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in this process, due to which the effect of an increase in hormone levels can be blocked by pirenzepine  .
In the Russian Federation, GHB is included in List III of the List of Narcotic Drugs (psychotropic substances, the circulation of which is limited and in respect of which the exclusion of certain control measures is allowed)  . In Finland, GHB has no drug status and is classified as a narcotic substance (since 2001)  .
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- Päihdelinkki> 317 Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and varnish Archived March 26, 2014 on Wayback Machine