Old Ladoga (until 1703, Ladoga ) - a village in the Volkhov municipal district of the Leningrad Region , the administrative center of the Staroladozhsky rural settlement .
|Subject of the federation||Leningrad region|
|History and Geography|
|First mention||862 year|
before 1703 - Ladoga
|Village with||1703 year|
|Timezone||UTC + 3|
|Population||▼ 1954  people ( 2017 )|
|Katoykonim||Ladozhane, Ladoga, Ladoga|
|Telephone code||+7 81363|
Until 1703, Ladoga was a city . In 2003, the 1250th anniversary of Staraya Ladoga was celebrated, during which the village was proclaimed as the " ancient capital of Northern Russia "  .
The Scandinavian name for Ladoga is Aldeigya, Aldeiguborg ( other Scand. Aldeigja, Aldeigjuborg ), the first written mention  of which is in the original form of the other Scand. Aldeigjar is found in the poem Bandadrapa by Ejolv Dadaskald , composed about 1010 in honor of Jarl Eirik .
The name of Ladoga is the river, lake and city. However, until recently it was not clear which of the names is primary. The name of the city was derived from the name of Lake Ladoga (from Fin. * Aaldokas, aallokas “worried” from aalto “wave”), or from the name of the Ladoga river (now Ladozhka , from Fin. * Alode-joki , where alode, aloe - “low terrain ”and jok (k) i -“ river ”).
Linguist E.A. Khelimsky offers German etymology. In his opinion, the name of the lake is primary - from dr.-scand. * Aldauga "an old source similar to the open sea." This hydronym is associated with the name Neva (which derives from Lake Ladoga ) in the Germanic languages - “new”. Through the intermediate form * Aldaugja, this word gave dr-scand. Aldeigja , and later Ladoga  .
The historian T.N. Jackson writes that "to date, it can be considered almost proven that the name of the river first appeared, then the city, and only then the lake." Therefore, she considers the primary hydronym of Ladoga, from dr.- Fin. * Alode-jogi (joki) “lower river”. From the name of the river came the name of the city of Dr. Scand. Aldeigja , and it was already borrowed by the Slavic population and transformed using the metathesis ald → lad into other Russian. Ladoga . According to T. N. Jackson, the Scandinavian medium between the Finnish and Old Russian words is confirmed by archaeological material: the Scandinavians on Ladoga first appeared in the early 750s , that is, a couple of decades earlier than the Slavs  .
In 2015, a site of an ancient man of the Neolithic era, dating from the third millennium BC , was found in the village  .
After drilling on the Zemlyanoye ancient settlement under a cultural layer 4 meters thick, low-grade peat bog and deposits of the Ladoga transgression were revealed. About 2000 years ago, the water level in Volkhov dropped below 10 meters of absolute height. The territory of the future Staraya Ladoga became suitable for settlement after a further decrease in water level no earlier than the middle of the 1st millennium  .
Under the Earthen settlement, surface plowing was carried out at Excavation 4 no later or somewhat earlier than the VI century, and at Excavation 3 - starting from the second half of the VII century - the first half of the VIII century. The farming of the first Ladozhans is confirmed by the findings of grains of wheat, rye, barley, millet and hemp  . The crest of the Merovingian era, found in Staraya Ladoga in 2013 , is supposedly dated to the 7th century. An embryonic Slavic settlement could have arisen on the Zemlyanoye ancient settlement around 700 or even earlier  .
In the first tier, three dwellings of frame-pillar construction (the so-called "large houses") with a hearth in the center have the oldest dendrodate in 753  . Production and ship repair workshops on Zemlyanoye ancient settlement were probably built by people from Northern Europe . Excavations show that the first settlement in Ladoga was founded and was originally inhabited presumably by the Scandinavians (according to E. A. Ryabinin , by the Scots )  .
In the first half of the 750s, Scandinavian settlements appeared in the lower reaches of Volkhov , but at the turn of the 760–770 years the Vikings were replaced by the Slavs  .
The first settlement consisted of several pillar constructions, which have analogues in Northern Europe, and was set 2 km south of the Lyubshan fortress , founded by representatives of the original Slavic culture of Central European origin  . The area of the original Staroladozhsky settlement did not exceed 2–4 ha  . It was then that the interests of the ancient Slavs, the ancient Germans and the local Finno-Baltic states crossed in the region. During the excavations of the VIII century, a whole industrial complex was discovered during excavations. During this period, the settlement is already trading with local tribes. Wheat grains were found in a burnt barn from VIII century layers: 80% is two-grain wheat (spelled), 20% is soft wheat. In Scandinavia, the spelled was never cultivated; moreover, the Old Ladoga spelled was very different from the European, but morphologically close to the Volga spelled  .
In the 760s, the Ladoga settlement was destroyed by representatives of Early Slavic culture from the South-West: the Dnieper Left Bank or Dniester, the Podunavye, the upper reaches of the Dnieper, the Western Dvina or the Volga (similar to the Prague , Penkov or Kolochin cultures) and built up with houses of log construction  . There is a lack of continuity between the first inhabitants of Ladoga and the subsequent population, who had other cultural traditions. In Ladoga, as in other places in the north-west of Russia ( Izborsk , Kamno , Rõuge , Pskov ), casting molds from limestone became widespread in the 8th – 9th centuries as a result of the revival of the fashion for such jewelry developed in the Prague culture of the early Slavs at the turn of the VI —VII centuries  .
Judging by the available data on the diversity and scope of relations, Ladoga was on a par with such trade and craft centers of Scandobalt as Hedeby and Ribe in Jutland , Kaupang in Norway , Paviken on Gotland , Birka in Sweden , Ralswick , Wolin (city) and others in the south of the Baltic  .
As archaeological evidence shows, most Ladoga residents were not engaged in trade, but in agriculture and crafts  .
Since the 780s, beads have been brewed in Ladoga using Arabic low-temperature technology. “Eyes,” that is, eye beads, are the first Russian money. Ladoga residents bought furs for them. And furs were sold to Arab merchants for full-weight silver dirhams . By the year 786, the first treasure of the Arab dirhams found in Ladoga belongs. An Arab traveler of the X century claims that for one glass "eye" you could buy a slave or slave  .
In the VIII-IX centuries, the population of Ladoga ranged from several dozen to 200 people. In the 9th century, Staraya Ladoga was located on a small section of the Earth fort  . This settlement existed until the end of the 830s  and was captured by the Varangians , possibly under the leadership of the King of the Svey Eirik (died about 871)  .
From the E2 horizon, the foundry mold of a two-horn pendant in the form of a pelt (840-855) is known. Similar jewelry comes from Great Moravia and was also found in Chernigov , on the Prince's Hill near Kiev, in Galich , in Slovakia and Bulgaria  .
Around 840, the settlement suffered a catastrophe as a result of an enemy invasion. In the period from about 840 to about 865, a significant part of the settlement turns into a wasteland. The other part is rebuilt in the Scandinavian traditions of the North European Halle. The Norman population brings its own traditions (Thor's mallets, etc.)  .
Further, Ladoga was a trade and craft settlement, which was once again destroyed in the 860s as a result of civil wars, which the PVL mentions. After the total fire fixed at the junction of the Ladoga horizons E2 — E1, which occurred approx. In the year 860, for about a decade, the flow of silver to the island of Gotland and to Sweden was interrupted  . Not later than 865, the settlement was again completely destroyed. Among the finds of this period (865-890s) there are both things from the North European circle of antiquities of the Viking Age and objects from the circle of antiquities of the forest zone of Eastern Europe. It can be confidently stated that at that time various ethnocultural groups live in Ladoga, among which the Scandinavians clearly stand out.  .
Around the 870s, the first wooden fortress was built in Staraya Ladoga at the confluence of the Ladozhka River in the Volkhov  . In the layers of the last quarter of the 9th century, the remains of a bronze foundry were discovered. As a result, Ladoga from a small trade and craft settlement develops into a typical Old Russian city with an area of 12 hectares. From the beginning of the 870s, the supply of silver from Eastern Europe to Scandinavia was steady and uniform, while until the end of the 10th century there was no information about the Vikings' attacks on Ladoga  .
The building density of the Zemlyanoye Gorodishche at level VI (c. 865–890) and VII (890–920) tiers is significantly lower than in previous decades  . At the turn of the 9th – 10th centuries, instead of wooden fortifications, a stone fortress was erected, similar to the West European defensive structures of that time  . According to dendrochronology, in 881  a so-called “big house” was built, this house (as well as a number of other similar houses) is not such a big house in the North European and Scandinavian sense, it’s just the manor bigger than the rest, which is one of the first buildings of this type typical of the entire ancient Novgorod land  .
According to craniometric features, anthropologists revealed a morphological similarity between Ladoga and the material from 5 livinia burial grounds located in the Gauja and Daugava river basins and from the Siksali burial ground in southeastern Estonia. The assumed similarity of those buried in the Zemlyanoye fortification and in the mounds of Shestovits is not confirmed by the t-student test . The ethnicity of medieval population groups cannot be determined by anthropological methods  .
In some lists of the " Tale of Bygone Years " (in particular, in Ipatievsky ) Ladoga is called the city where the Varangians Rurik was called to reign in 862:
... and came to the first wordѣ and cut down the city of Ladogѫ and sѣde in Ladozѣ oldѣishiya Rurik ...
Although other versions of the story say that he sat down to reign in Novgorod . Hence the version that Ladoga was the first capital of Russia (more precisely, the place of Rurik's reign from 862 to 864). Archaeological research conducted in Staraya Ladoga (headed by A.N. Kirpichnikov ) proves the close contacts of the Ilmen Slovenes, Finno-Ugric tribes and Normans (Urman) in this area in the 9th-10th centuries.
On Varyazhskaya street in the layers of the first quarter of the 10th century fragments of ceramics with lusgrome painting were found that belong to the earliest (Mesopotamian (Samarr)) stage of production of this Middle Eastern utensil  . In the layers of the 10th century a birch bark scroll with the image of a boat was discovered  .
The city was an important point on the trade route "from the Varangians to the Greeks . " According to the Novgorod Chronicle, Ladoga’s grave is located in Ladoga (according to the Kiev version, his grave is in Kiev on Mount Schekavitsa ).
In 997, Eirik , the future Norwegian ruler, attacked Ladoga. The first Ladoga fortress, which existed for more than 100 years, was destroyed.
In the sagas there is a mention that when the daughter of the Swedish king Olaf Sjötkönung , Princess Ingigerda in 1019 married the Novgorod prince Yaroslav the Wise , she received the city of Aldeyugorg (Staraya Ladoga) with adjoining lands, which have since been called Ingermanland , in a dowry (Vienna) (land of Ingergerda)  , and Rögnnwald Ulvsson - the jarl of Westergötland (maternal relative of Ingergerda) was appointed the lodger ( jarl ) of Ladoga ( Saga of Eymund ). Ulv (Uleb) and Eiliv are the sons of Rögnwald. According to Scandinavian sources, Eiliv became a jarl (posadnik) in Ladoga after the death of his father, and Uleb was mentioned in the annals under 1032 as the Novgorod governor.
The earliest graves of the 9th – 10th centuries in the tract Plakun , located on the opposite bank of the Volkhov River, opposite the settlement of Ladoga, consist only of cremations. The only collection of skeletons of the early Middle Ages available for morphological and genetic studies was excavated in 1938-1939 by V.I. Ravdonikas and G.P. Grozdilov in the Zemlyanoye ancient settlement. All burials in the cemetery were made in graves without mounds in accordance with Christian tradition. Skeletons lay on their backs with their heads to the west. According to stratigraphy, Ravdonikas proposed two periods of functioning of the cemetery - the XVII — XVIII and XI — XII centuries. Several burials from the lower horizon are dated by the radiocarbon method in the years 880–1188. According to the analysis for strontium content, burial sites differ from the local fauna. The collection of skeletons from the early graves of Staraya Ladoga, stored in the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), totals 65 people. Craniometric studies show that the skulls of people from the southern part of the cemetery are morphologically close to a series of Vikings from Scandinavia, while the northern part of the cemetery may belong to a mixed Slavic, Finnish and Scandinavian population. In residents of Staraya Ladoga of the 10th – 12th centuries, paleogenetics determined Y-chromosome haplogroups I (n = 1), I1 (n = 4), I1a1 (n = 1), I1a1b1 (n = 2), T1a1a, R1a1a1b1a3a-Z284> L448 ( n = 1), R1b1a1b1a1a2c (n = 1) and mitochondrial haplogroups H1b1, H5, H5a1, H6c, J1c, J1c1a, J1b1a1, J2b1a, K1d, T2b, T2b6a, U4a1a, U5a2b4a2b4a2a4.
In 1116, the Ladoga posadnik Paul laid the stone fortress  :
Въ лѣт̑ ·҂ѕ҃ · х҃ · к҃ · д҃
The same summer Pavil · Posadnik Ladozhsky · lay Ladoga city Kamyan
The ancient Staroladozh fortress , which has become the "heart" of today's Staraya Ladoga, stands at the confluence of the Elena River (Ladoga) in the Volkhov. In the times of Novgorod Rus, it was a strategically important place, because it was the only possible harbor where sea vessels could not stop, unable to sail along the thresholds of Volkhov.
In 1142, “the prince of Sveisk and the biscup came in 60 screws” - the Swedes attacked Ladoga. In 1164 there was a new Swedish attack on Ladoga. After an unsuccessful siege that lasted several days, the Swedes retreated and were utterly defeated by the Novgorodians in the battle on the Voronezh River .
As a result of changes in urban land use and planning, the construction of St. Clement's stone cathedral in 1153, the frequency of fires decreased significantly in the 11th – 12th centuries in Ladoga and the area of ruderal habitats (weeds) decreased  .
In 1499, Ladoga, according to the scribe book of the Vodskaya Pyatina , consisted of a fortress and a posad, which, like Novgorod, was divided into ends: Nikolsky, Bogoroditsky, Semenovsky, Klimyatsky and Spassky.
After the end of the Russian-Swedish war of 1590-1595 , in the Tyavzinsky world, Ladoga was recognized as belonging to Russia.
In 1610, Ladoga was captured by the French mercenaries Pierre Delaville who were in Swedish service, but a year later was released by the governor I. M. Saltykov  .
According to the Pillar of Peace , which ended the Russo-Swedish war of 1613-1617 , Sweden abandoned claims to Ladoga.
In 1704, Peter I founded Novaya Ladoga at the mouth of Volkhov and renamed Ladoga “Staraya Ladoga”, depriving her of the status of a city and the right to have her own coat of arms, and ordered many Ladoga residents to move to New Ladoga. Prior to this event, Ladoga was the center of the Ladoga district of the Vodskaya Pyatina of Novgorod Land .
In 1718, the first wife of Peter I, Evdokia Lopukhin, was transferred from the Suzdal to the Ladoga Assumption Monastery.
In 1719, Staraya Ladoga became part of the Novgorod province (was formed as part of the St. Petersburg province ).
In 1727, the Staroladozhsky district of the Novgorod province was included in the new Novgorod province .
In 1770, the Staroladozh district was abolished.
OLD LADOGA - the settlement belongs to the Novoladozh merchants and bourgeoisie, the number of inhabitants under the audit: 54 m. P., 62 g. P.
There are stone churches in it: a) In the name of St. George the Great Martyr. б) Девичий монастырь во имя Успения Пресвятой Богородицы. в) Упразднённая церковь во имя Св. Предтечи Иоанна. г) Монастырь во имя Св. Николая Чудотворца. (1838 год)  .
СТАРАЯ ЛАДОГА — селение Новоладожских мещан, по просёлочной дороге, число дворов — 30, число душ — 57 м п. (1856 год) 
СТАРАЯ ЛАДОГА — село мещанское, при реках Волхове и Ладожке, 43 двора, жителей 103 м п., 264 ж. P.;
Церквей православных 4. Монастырей 2. Развалины крепости называемой Рюриковою. (1862 год) 
В XIX веке село административно относилось к Михайловской волости 1-го стана Новоладожского уезда Санкт-Петербургской губернии, в начале XX века — 2-го стана.
С 1917 по 1919 год село Старая Ладога входило в состав Староладожского сельсовета Михайловской волости Новоладожского уезда.
С апреля 1919 года, в состав Октябрьской волости Волховского уезда . С ноября 1919 года село Старая Ладога учитывалось областными административными данными, как посёлок Старая Ладога .
С 1927 года, в составе Волховского района  .
По данным 1933 года деревня Старая Ладога являлась административным центром Староладожского сельсовета Волховского района, в который входили 17 населённых пунктов, деревни: Ахматова Гора, Валеши, Зелёная Долина, Ивановка, Каменка, Киндерево, Княщина, Лыткино, Местовка, Макинкина, Межумошье, Неважи, Окулово, Подол, Подмонастырская Слобода, Старая Ладога , Трусово, общей численностью населения 2312 человек  .
По данным 1936 года в состав Староладожского сельсовета с центром в посёлке Старая Ладога входили 15 населённых пунктов, 410 хозяйств и 13 колхозов  .
В 1961 году население Старой Ладоги составляло 1059 человек  .
По административным данным 1973 года в селе располагалась центральная усадьба совхоза «Волховский»  . В 1997 году в селе проживали 2457 человек, в 2002 году — 2182 человека (русские — 95 %)   .
В 2003 году широко проводилось празднование 1250-летия Старой Ладоги как « древней столицы Северной Руси », которое освещалось прессой и привлекло внимание властей. Российский президент Владимир Путин издал указ по подготовке и проведению юбилея и дважды посетил Старую Ладогу  .
Село расположено в северной части района на левом берегу реки Волхов , в 8 км к северу от административного центра района — города Волхова .
Через него проходит региональная автодорога А115 Новая Ладога — Волхов — Кириши — Зуево .
Culture and Art
The first depiction of Staraya Ladoga was an engraving by Adam Olearius , who visited the city in 1634, as secretary of the Embassy of Frederick III to Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich . Staraya Ladoga attracted Russian artists of the 19th — 20th centuries with its romantic views of the banks of the ancient Volkhov, churches, monasteries and majestic mounds. Not far from the village was the Uspenskoe estate of Alexei Tomilov , which in the 19th century was a local cultural center. There were artists I.K. Aivazovsky , O. A. Kiprensky , A. O. Orlovsky , A. G. Venetsianov , I. A. Ivanov and others  . In 1844, in the village of Lopino , located opposite the fortress on the other side of Volkhov, V.M. Maksimov , the future academician of painting and the Wanderer, who painted pictures from the life and life of peasants, was born into a peasant family. Here in 1911 he was buried.
In the summer of 1899, Nicholas Roerich wrote sketches from life in Staraya Ladoga. “ We climb the hill, ” Roerich wrote of his impressions, “and we have before us one of the best Russian landscapes ”  . There were V. A. Serov , K. A. Korovin , B. M. Kustodiev . In 1924-1926, A.N. Samokhvalov visited Staraya Ladoga several times and participated in preparatory work on the restoration of St. George’s Cathedral  . According to the artist, this experience taught him a lot, helped to understand how the compositional fusion of images of monumental painting and architectural forms " created the pathos of polyphonic sounding of the whole complex of acting elements "  . The result of these trips was also the landscape of “Old Ladoga” (1924) and the painting “The Fisherman's Family” (1926, the State Russian Museum)  .
In February 1945, by the decision of the Leningrad Executive Committee, the Recreation Center in Staraya Ladoga (the former Shakhovsky estate, named after the last owner of Prince Nikolai Ivanovich Shakhovsky (1851-1937), secret adviser, member of the State Bank of Russia and was transferred to the balance of the Art Fund for organizing the creative base of Leningrad artists his son, Vsevolod Nikolayevich (1874-1954), full state adviser, last minister of trade and industry (1915-1917) of tsarist Russia, who emigrated to France in 1919)   . In 1946, repair and construction work began, which stretched for 15 years  .
Since the mid-1940s, Leningrad artists began to come to Staraya Ladoga. For S.I. Osipov , G.A. Savinov , N.E. Timkov , A.N. Semenov and other masters, these places became a source of inspiration for many years. The idea of the inheritance of the values of labor and culture is clearly voiced in their work, for which “the national past is not inseparable from modernity, but is included in it as an important component ”  .
In the early 1960s, after the renovation of the buildings of the old manor in the village of Chernavino, the House of Artists "Staraya Ladoga" began to work constantly, becoming for thirty years an important center of artistic life  . Artists EE Moiseenko , A. N. Samokhvalov , V. F. Zagonek , N. N. Baskakov , V. I. Ovchinnikov , V. V. Vatenin , I. I. Godlevsky , V. P. Krantz worked here B. B. Korneev , M. A. Kozlovskaya , L. S. Yazgur , D. V. Belyaev , V. A. Bazhenov , D. P. Buchkin , E. P. Zhukova , S. E. Zakharov , A M. Semenov , T. K. Afonina , Z. N. Byzova , V. I. Borisov , I. M. Dobryakova , N. N. Brandt , B. S. Ugarov , P. T. Fomin , V. I Reichet , L. I. Vaishlya , V. I. Vikulov , V. S. Saxon , D. I. Mayevsky and many other Leningrad painters and graphic artists, as well as artists from other regions of Russia. In 1970-1980, the House of Creativity of Staraya Ladoga artists expanded, new buildings were built, which made it possible to use the creative base in Staraya Ladoga year-round. The cost of living, food, travel artists paid the Art Fund  . Works written in Staraya Ladoga or based on the materials collected here were exhibited at major art exhibitions of the 1960-1980s    , replenished museum collections. In particular, they became the basis of an extensive fund of painting, graphics and sculpture of the museum of the Staraya Ladoga Reserve  .
In the early 1990s, after the liquidation of the Art Fund and due to a lack of funds for maintenance, the Staraya Ladoga Artists' House first stopped accepting artists and then ceased to exist.
Population dynamics from 1920 to 2017  :
- The village is located Staroladozhsky historical, architectural and archaeological museum-reserve , which includes Staroladozhsky fortress .
- St. George's Church (c. 1165)
- Staroladozhsky Nicholas Monastery
- Church of the Nativity of John the Baptist
- Staroladozhsky Assumption Monastery
- Assumption Cathedral (1160s)
- Mounds :
- Olegova's grave
- Artificial Quartz Sand Caves
- In 2015, a monument to Princes Rurik and Oleg (sculptor O. Shorov) was unveiled on Varyazhskaya Street.
From Volkhov to Staraya Ladoga can be reached by buses number 23 and 23A.
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Varyazhskaya, Volkhovsky Lane, Volkhovsky Prospect, Garage, Eleninsky Lane, Knyashchinsky Lane, Culture, Furniture Lane, Morozovskaya, Museum Lane, Naberezhnaya, Nikolskaya, Nikolsky Lane, New, Pozemskaya, Postal Lane, Sovetskaya, Uspensky Lane 
- Varyazhskaya street is considered the oldest street in Russia, it has not changed its configuration since the X century.
- New Ladoga
- Old Ladoga Fortress
- Lyubshan fortress
- Rurikovo Gorodishche
- Mayat Town
- Novgorod land
- Ilmen Slovenia
- Baltic-Finnish peoples
- Administrative and territorial division of the Leningrad region / Comp. Kozhevnikov V.G. - Directory. - SPb. : Inkeri, 2017 .-- S. 93 .-- 271 p. - 3000 copies. Archived March 14, 2018 on Wayback Machine
- President ordered ... // Construction, 12.16.2002. archive link .
- Comments on the Tale of Bygone Years (prepared by A. G. Bobrov, S. L. Nikolaev, A. Yu. Chernov, A. M. Vvedensky, L. V. Voitovich) p. 213 in the book The Tale of Bygone Years, Translation from Old Russian D.S. Likhachev, O.V. Tvorogova. Comments by A. G. Bobrov, S. L. Nikolaev, A. Yu. Chernov with the participation of A. M. Vvedensky and L. V. Voitovich. Articles by A. G. Bobrov, S. V. Beletsky, S. L. Nikolaev. Illustrations by M. M. Mechev; SPb., Vita Nova, 2012. 
- Helimski E. Ladoga and Perm revisited // Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia 13 (2008) P. 75-88.
- Jackson T.N. Aldeigya. Archeology and Place Names // Monuments of Medieval Culture: Discoveries and Versions. - SPb. , 1994. - S. 77-79.
- In the ancient city of Rus found a settlement of the XXX century BC
- Shitov M.V., Biske Yu.S., Nosov E.N., Pleshivtseva E.S. Natural environment and people of the Lower Volga at the final stage of the Ladoga transgression // Bulletin of St. Petersburg University. Ser. 7. Issue 3 2004
- Kirpichnikov A.N., Kurbatov A.V. New data on the origin of the Ladoga settlement and the appearance of the Slavs in the Volga region // Stratum plus, No. 5. 2014
- Old Ladoga turned out to be older than expected
- Kuzmin S. L. Ladoga in the era of the early Middle Ages (mid-VIII - beginning of the XII century) // Research on archaeological sites of the Middle Ages. - St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya, 2008. - S. 69-94.
- Nosov E.N. Modern archaeological data on the Varangian problem against the background of the traditions of Russian historiography Archived on April 12, 2008. // Early medieval antiquities of Northern Russia and its neighbors. - SPb., 1999 .-- S. 151-163.
- Lebedev G.S. Archeology of Ladoga // Viking Age in Northern Europe and Russia. - SPb .: Eurasia, 2005. - ISBN 5-8071-0179-0
- Yakubtsiner M. M. About the composition of grain crops from Staraya Ladoga . - Brief reports on reports and field studies of the Institute of the History of Material Culture, LVII, 1955. - 17.
- Lopatin N.V. On the phenomenon of the most ancient annalistic mention of Beloozero and Izborsk (From the collection of materials of the International Scientific Conference “Northern Russia and the Problems of the Formation of the Old Russian State”, held in the cities of Vologda, Kirillov and Belozersk on June 6-8, 2012)
- Golovnev A. B. Anthropology of movement (antiquities of Northern Eurasia). Ekaterinburg: Ural Branch of RAS; Volot, 2009, p. 287.
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