Erya ( Chinese trad. 爾雅 , ex. 尔雅 , pinyin : Ěryǎ , literally: "Approaching the classics") is the oldest extant dictionary of Chinese characters or the Chinese encyclopedia. The collective work of scientists of ancient China, created in the III — II centuries BC. e. According to other versions, authorship is attributed to Confucius or Zhou Gong . Under the Qin Dynasty , the dictionary was destroyed, restored under the Han Dynasty . Included in the Confucian Thirteenth Book . In addition to interpreting hieroglyphs, it contains information on spelling and grammar, encyclopedic data. Consists of 19 dots . According to Bernhard Karlgren , most of the glosses presented in the dictionary date back to the 3rd century.
In the Hanshu bibliography (111 C.E.), Erya is listed in the Xiaojing column 孝經; in later ages it was moved to the xiaosue category 小學.
- 《释 诂》 Explanation of vocabulary ( interpretation of the meaning of hieroglyphs found in ancient texts )
- 《释 言》 Explanation of words ( interpretation of adjectives and verbs found in ancient texts )
- 《释 训》 Gloss explanation ( interpretation of stable words and phrases )
- 《释 亲》 Clarification of kinship ( interpretation of kinship terms )
- 《释 宫》 Explanation of dwellings ( buildings and their elements )
- 《释 器》 Explanation of utensils ( dishes, food, clothes )
- 《释 乐》 Musical instrument clarification
- 《释 天》 Explanation of celestial bodies ( astronomical objects and phenomena )
- 《释 地》 Explanation of territories ( administrative division )
- 《释 丘》 Clarification of hills ( hills and hills )
- 《释 山》 Explanation of the mountains
- 《释 水》 Water clarification
- 《释 草》 Explanation of herbs
- 《释 木》 Explanation of trees
- 《释 虫》 Clarification of insects
- 《释 鱼》 Fish explanation
- 《释 鸟》 Bird clarification
- 《释 兽》 Wildlife Explained
- 《释 畜》 Pet clarification
Exploring the Erya Dictionary in Russia
For a long time, domestic Sinology has not attempted a systematic study of the Erya dictionary. At the same time, references to him and references to him are contained in the works of S.E. Yakhontova, Yu.V. Rozhdestvensky, V.I. Gorelova, K.I. Golygina, A.L. Semenas, G.Ya. Dashevskaya, A.I. Kobzeva, M.V. Solntseva, N.V. Solntseva, V.A. Kurdyumova, M.V. Kryukova, V.S. Kolokolova, M.V. Sofronova, A.M. Karapetyantsa and others.
In 2008, T.E. Ph.D. thesis was defended at the Dissertation Council of the Irkutsk State Linguistic University Shishmareva on the topic "Experience in the reconstruction of the linguistic picture of the world based on an ancient lexicographic source" under the direction of OM Gottlieb  . This work was the first attempt in the Chinese Sinology to conduct a comprehensive study of the Erya dictionary. For the first time in Russia, it presents a complete translation of the dictionary under study.
In 2009, at Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosova N.V. Guryan, under the guidance of A. M. Karapetyants, defended her thesis “The Structure of the First Chinese Dictionary“ Erya ”and the Chinese Philological Tradition”  .
In 2014, N.V. Guryan "The first Chinese dictionary" Erya ": the experience of historical and philological research."
In 2016, T.E. Shishmareva "Chinese Dictionary" Erya "in the ideographic and ethnocultural aspects", containing a complete translation of the dictionary "Erya" into Russian  .
- Yakhontov S. E. The History of Linguistics in China: 1 thousand BC e. - 1 thousand n e. // History of linguistic teachings: The ancient world. - L .: Science, 1980.
- Shishmareva, T. E. Experience of reconstruction of the linguistic picture of the world based on an ancient lexicographic source: dis. ... cand. filol. Sciences / Scientific. hands. O.M. Gottlieb . - Irkutsk, 2008 .-- 343 p.
- Guryan N. V. The structure of the first Chinese dictionary "Erya" and the Chinese philological tradition : Abstract of dissertation for the degree of candidate of philological sciences (specialty 10.02.22. - languages of peoples of foreign countries ...) / Scientific. hands. A.M. Karapetyants . - M., 2009.
- Guryan, N.V. The First Chinese Dictionary "Erya". The experience of historical and philological research / N.V. Guryan. - M.: Publishing House of the VKN, 2014 .-- 208 p.
- Shishmareva T. Ye. Chinese dictionary "Erya" in ideographic and ethnocultural aspects. - Irkutsk: ISU , 2017 .-- 289 p.
- Shishmareva T.E. The experience of reconstructing the linguistic picture of the world based on an ancient lexicographic source
- Guryan N.V. The structure of the first Chinese dictionary "Erya" and the Chinese philological tradition / elibrary.ru : RSCI
- Published translation of the Chinese explanatory dictionary / ISU : 03.16.2017
- Xiao Erya ( Chinese trade. 小 爾雅 , comp. 小 尔雅 )
- Ramesseum Onomasticon