The West Siberian Uprising of 1921–22 was the largest anti-Bolshevik armed action of peasants, Cossacks, part of the workers and the urban intelligentsia in the RSFSR in the early 1920s. It passed on the territory of Western Siberia and was brutally suppressed.
|West Siberian Uprising|
|Main conflict: Russian Civil War|
|date||January 31, 1921 - end of 1922|
|A place||Tyumen Province , Omsk Province , Chelyabinsk Province , Yekaterinburg Province of the RSFSR , Akmola Province, Kyrgyz ASSR|
Dictatorship of the RCP (B)
|Total||Brutal suppression of the uprising|
|Forces of the parties|
Background of the uprising
The Soviet leadership pursued a policy of war communism . In a memorandum of the chairman of the Siberian Food Committee Peter Kirillovich Koganovich of July 1920, it was said that according to the data of the Sibprodcom in Siberia in 1919 there was free surplus of bread in the amount of 77054 thousand pounds, and in 1920 - 71753 thousand pounds of which 54716 thousand pounds were taken, and no more than 25000 thousand pounds were harvested. On July 20, 1920, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR adopted a decree “On the withdrawal of grain surplus in Siberia,” according to which the peasants were obliged to hand over all the surplus bread of previous years and at the same time a new crop. According to this decree of the Council of People's Commissars, from June 20, 1920 to March 1, 1921, 6 provinces subordinated to Sibrevky ( Irkutsk , Yenisei , Tomsk , Omsk , Altai , Semipalatinsk ) were to hand over 110 million pounds. grain, Tyumen province - 8 177 thousand pounds, Yekaterinburg province - 10 million pounds, Chelyabinsk province - 17 million pounds, which amounted to of the national task of 440 million pounds. The peasants pledged to hand over grain, meat (6,270,000 pounds of meat were imposed on Siberia), oil, eggs, potatoes, vegetables, leather, wool, tobacco, horns, hooves and much more. A total of 37 spreads covered them. In addition, the entire working population from 18 to 50 years old had to perform various duties: to chop and export timber, to supply carts, etc. For evasion, severe penalties were provided, including arrest and forced labor. The direct leaders were: predsibprodkom Peter Kirillovich Koganovich, Tyumen gubprodkomissar Grigori Samoilovich Indenbaum, Yekaterinburg gubprodkommissar Tikhon Maksimovich Ponomarenko.
By the beginning of 1921, peasant uprisings spread to almost the whole of Soviet Russia. The peasants demanded an end to the grain monopoly and the liquidation of the dictatorship of the RCP (B.) . In the winter of 1921, Western Siberia also rose.
Introduced from the end of August 1920 in the Tyumen province, numerous developments were unbearable for the peasants of Ishim district , especially since in 1920 this region suffered a severe failure. However, the local party and Soviet leadership, seizing in some places even food bread and seeds, carried out unprecedented violence against the peasantry  .
Due to bad weather conditions - torrential rains led to a strong thaw, which complicated the work on the removal of bread and transporting it to railway stations - it was not possible to fulfill the tasks for the surplus. Therefore, its main burden fell on November 1920 - January 1921. The course for the speedy implementation of the plan led to further abuses and mismanagement. According to the carelessness of the Bolshevik leadership and the disorder of the authorities, the bread harvested in public barns rotted, the sheep died from the cold, cropped to fulfill the plan of wool development, the destruction of cattle was going on. The bread spread plan in the Tyumen province was fulfilled by 102% and amounted to 6.6 million pounds. 100% completed the Kurgan district. Omsk Province did not fulfill the task, collecting only 48% of the plan. Tobolsk-Tyumen newspaper “Izvestia” reported in those days: “... In Omsk , Tyukalinsky , Ishimsky , Kalachinsky , Tatarsky and Slavgorod districts, 50 ssypny points were opened, 2 958 769 pounds were poured! 1 461 686 poods have been handed over to the gruppproduct! More than a million poods remained at the dumping points. ” As a result, in November 1920 - January 1921, the uprisings occurred in the Bezrukovsk, Berdyuzh, Bolshe-Sorokin, Golyshmanovsk, Dubyn, Larihinsk, Peganovsk, Uktuz volosts of the Ishim district, the Yurginsk volost of the Yalutorovsk district , the Lyubinsk volost of the Tyukalinsk district, three times (in the campaign in the Yushinsky district of the Yalutorovsky district , the Lyubinsky volost of the Tykalinsky district, in the Ykutinsky district of the Tykalinsky district, the Yurga district of the Yalutorovsky district , the Lyubinsky district of the Tykalinsky district, in the Yukurinsky district of the Tyumeninsky district and December 1920) arose in the Vsesvyatsky district of Petropavlovsk district. With the help of the armed forces, the authorities easily dealt with the discontented.
On the basis of the decisions of the Eighth Congress of Soviets, adopted in December 1920, preparations were underway to conduct a seed pattern. “In order to preserve seed materials and provide the possibility of sowing the fields,” wrote the newspaper Izvestia, an organ of the Tyumen-Tobolsk Committee of the RCP (b), in one of its January issues of 1921, “Soviet provincial authority orders: all the seed material that is in separate farms, is subject to seizure, dumping-fold into public storage barns, for which distribution is carried out on counties, villages and individual farms ”.
One of the main reasons for the uprising is food distribution , and, more broadly, the internal policy of “war communism”. Forced seizure of bread was made in the interests of the urban population (which, nevertheless, sat on a starvation ration) and a large army, and the peasants clearly seemed to be robbery. The peasants were not explained why they were taken bread and cattle. The peasants were constantly in front of the food squads only. The surplus put the rural population in danger of starvation .
On September 27, 1920, a member of the Chelnokovskaya Volyacheyka, a member of the RCP (B.) From 1917, was found killed in the Tushnobobovo District, Ivan Platonovich Shcherbakov. His murder was one of the notable impulses to toughen measures by Ishim power. He was buried in the center of Chelnokovo near the parish church as an honorary citizen. At the funeral, a rally was typical of those years. And on December 14, 1920, the Chelnokovo Volzhsky Executive Committee was burned. And from that moment on, masses of those arrested (up to several dozen per day) from all over the county began to arrive in Ishim police station.
Beginning of the uprising
The gathering of women in the Peganov volost of Ishim district, which took place on December 31, 1920 in response to the “shock” fulfillment of the surplus (seizure of food and seed bread) and arbitrariness on the part of the food commissars, decided to consider such actions illegal, arrest the labor of Slukhin, Maksimuk, and police officers Zhuravleva and Kukhtin. The food detachment of 9 people was disarmed by the women, having decided to send him back to Ishim after the meeting ended. In addition, the women requested the police chief of the 4th district of Ishim to arrive in the village of Paganovo to investigate the illegal actions of these persons.
On January 22, 1921, in order to better supply the poorest rural population with food bread, a resolution was adopted by the Tyumen regional executive committee of the Soviets and the provincial food distribution committee “On the internal development of bread”, which will be held after the state development.
On January 27, 1921, unrest began in the Omutinsky volost of Yalutorovsky district.
On January 31, 1921, peasants clashed with food detachments in the villages of Chelnokovsky and Churtansky, in the north of Ishim County . In the village of Chelnokovsky, in response to an attempt by the peasants to prevent the removal of seed grain, the Red Army soldiers opened fire. Two dissatisfied were killed and two injured. However, unlike previous clashes, the peasants did not succumb to violence, and, armed with sticks, pitchforks, hunting rifles, entered the battle and drove out the prodrabotrabot. Residents were joined by residents of Chelnokovo, Churtan, Vikulovskaya, Gotoputovskaya and other volosts. Within 3 days of the uprising swept the entire north of Ishim County and spread to Yalutorovsky.
By February 4, the uprising seized Ingalinskaya, Petropavlovsk and Slobodo-Beshkil volosts of Yalutorovsk district. From January 31 to February 2, 1921, unrest lasted in the Nerda Volost of Tyumen County. On February 3, the Tobolsk district military enlistment office already had information about the uprising in the Tokui and Tukuz volosts, and the next day a mutiny occurred in the Malinov volost. At the same time, the population of the Kailinskaya, Slobodchikovskaya and Tavinskaya volosts of the Tarsky district revolted, which were soon joined by residents of a number of volosts. On February 5, the rebels operated in the Panovskoy parish of Tyukalinsky district. On February 6, the plenipotentiary chairman of the Cheka of Siberia in Siberia, I. P. Pavlunovsky, telegraphed to the Presidium of the Cheka that an uprising broke out in the Omsk province — in the Tarsky and Tyukalinsky districts . The rebels are armed with a sufficient number of machine guns and rifles, led by Colonel Levitsky. On February 7, an uprising broke out in the Tobolsk-Tarsky district, south-east of Tobolsk, the village of Chernyaya, Tokuyskoye, Zagvazdinskoe was occupied by the rebels. In the area of Tevriz-Ustishimsky also a rebellion broke out. On February 8 there were riots in the Karaulloyarsky volost of the Tyumen district. On the same day, the uprising embraced several volosts of the Petukhov district, located in the opposite, south-western part of Ishim district.
On February 10, the head of the Rozanov office from Tyukalinsk was informing P. V. Guzakov, the chairman of the Omsk municipalities “... Nazyvaevsky district. A part of the Hundred and Eighty-first Regiment of the VNUS operates in the Sandy Volost, cleans the village of the village from thugs , and order is restored ... In Nazyvaevsky volost, our drug-cops arrested by thugs were arrested, delivering orders to the villages .. The rebel headquarters in the village of Gryaznoe was seized. Our station is occupied by Mangut. With the capture of Mangut, our troops united with the troops operating from Ishim. Krutinsky direction: Krutinsky volost cleared of bandits ... ".
February 11, Operzvodka from Petropavlovsk - “... North of P-Pavlovsk (near Novonikolayevka) a battle with rebels takes place; 20 shells were fired at the villages they occupied. As a result, the enemy retreated. But then, having concentrated the forces, he led a counterattack .. Our detachment of 120 bayonets had to retreat to Novonikolaevka ... The enemy is rumored to have about a thousand armed (rebels), of which no more than 50 people with rifles. Between Petukhovo and Mamlyutka the way is interrupted, the telegraphic communication too .... ”.
On February 13, the head of the Tara Zlokozov Bureau informed P. V. Guzakov: “... Today Ust-Ishim is busy, which at 12 o'clock was left by the rebels. The enemy moves away to Slobodchaki, pursued by our units under the command of Tsirkunov .. ”On the same day, P. V. Guzakov was informed from Isilkul :“ .. 3 am on the night of February 13. Reinforced intelligence from the enemy from the village of Big Lebyazhya .. The railroad track on the left side is three miles from Bulaevo broken ... Due to damage to the way by the bandits, two cars and the rear part of the engine descended. Immediately, damage to the telegraph network was discovered: three pillars were cut down, wires were cut ... For Gankino, six miles from Bulaevo - the enemy is on the left side. Cossacks and peasants are advancing, and local Cossacks are beginning to come out. The performances of the latter begin with the local neighborhoods in the direction of Gankino, Poltava, Lebyazhinsky, Bolshaya Kamyshino. The rest of the terrain is not clear due to a break in communication with them ... The rebels mobilize the population from 18 to 45 years. There are very few armed rebels, but in battles they always use the slogan: “Down with the Communists!” The prisoners of the rebels do not say who is leading the movement, but it is clear from everything Cossack officers are commanding ... ”.
On February 14, they informed the Omsk Regional Committee from the Tobolsk-Tarsky District: “... It turned out that the number of insurgents operating in the Ust-Ishim and Slobodsky districts amounts to 400 people, some of whom are armed with shotguns. The goal of the rebels is to spread to Ust-Ishim volost and Tevriz ... The main forces are in the village of Malakhovsky, which is 20 versts south-west of Chelnokov ... "
There were persistent battles for the city of Petropavlovsk . February 14, the rebels occupied him. But the next day, the Red Army soldiers, having received reinforcement from Omsk — the 249th regiment of the 21 VNUS divisions, a platoon of the 85th artillery division and an armored train “Red Siberian”, launched a counter-offensive. The city passed from hand to hand three times, and only February 16 was finally left for the red. Rebel detachments continued to advance south from Petropavlovsk and on February 23, 1921 occupied the city of Kokchetav . The rebels, supported by the Cossacks, approached the cities of Akmolinsk and Atbasar , but could not take them.
Starting 31 January 1921 in the north-eastern part of the Ishim district of the Tyumen province , the uprising in the short term to cover most counties Berezovsky , Ishim , Surgut , Tobolsk , Turin , Tyumen and Yalutorovsky districts of Tyumen Province, Atbasar , Akmola , Kokchetav , Peter and Paul , Tarski and Tyukalinsk districts of the Omsk province , Kurgan district of the Chelyabinsk province , eastern districts of the Kamyshlovsky and Shadrinsky districts of the Ekaterinburg province . In the spring of 1921, insurgent detachments operated on a vast territory from Obdorsk in the north to Karkaralinsk in the south, from Tugulym station in the west to Surgut in the east. The number of rebels in April exceeded 100 thousand people.
Despite the pronounced bitterness, the insurgency was focal. The peasantry did not completely join the insurgents, which was by no means determined only by its social and property status (in particular, the rural poor were one way or another on the side of the rebels). The organizers of the rebel movement had to resort to violent mobilization of the male population between the ages of 18 and 35 (45) years, if necessary, without stopping in front of repression. Some of the peasants simply did not want to fight, and even if they were fighting, then in a limited area, and in many villages their own volunteer detachments were formed, primarily from the ones most affected by Soviet power. The social composition of the rebel movement was quite variegated: mostly middle peasants, wealthy peasants, part of the poor, former military specialists, Red Army soldiers who had deserted or surrendered (for example, in the battle near the village of Belovsky, the Red Army soldiers who had surrendered to the 233rd regiment), as well as criminals. There were also cases of police representatives participating in the uprising (for example, the militiamen of the Ozerninsk volost, Golovanov and Vikulovsk volost, Grigoriev, were on the side of the rebels). Memoirists and historians have differently determined the number of participants in the West Siberian uprising. In the literature, you can find numbers from 30 to 150 thousand people.
The Ishim party organization during the uprising suffered significant, according to archival data, losses: in the nominal list of communists of the Ishim organization of the RCP (b) on April 20, 1921, there were 406 people killed and missing during the uprising.
The uprising gained enormous scope. In February 1921, the rebels for three weeks paralyzed traffic on both lines of the Trans-Siberian Railway, and then occupied the city of Petropavlovsk - February 14 , Tobolsk - February 21 , Kokchetav - February 21 , Surgut - March 10 , Berezov - March 21 , Obdorsk - April 1 and Karkaralinsk - on April 5 , fought for Ishim (passed from hand to hand several times), approached Kurgan and Yalutorovsk .
The fighting, which took place in February-April 1921 on the territory covered by the uprising, is comparable in scale and military-political results with large military operations during the civil war .
The primary and main characteristic of the West Siberian uprising was its anti-communist orientation. The demands of the rebels most fully reflected the slogan “For Soviets without Communists”, they also sought freedom of speech, assembly and union, ensuring freedom of trade, the right to freely dispose of their land and products of their labor, that is, the elimination of the grain monopoly.
In the appeal of the Tobolsk headquarters of the rebels to all the inhabitants of Siberia, on March 25, 1921, it was announced:
|We are striving for real Soviet power, not communist power, which until now has been disguised as Soviet power ...|
Freely elected parish and rural peasant soviets were restored in the liberated territories.
The purpose of the insurgency, according to the command of the Red Army, was to seize power and return to the old order, which, according to the convictions of the rebels, attracted free trade and the absence of communists. It is impossible to point out any prevailing ideals in the rebel ideology, it combined the views of the Social Revolutionary and monarchism. In some places resumed, for example, titles for rank and wearing epaulets. The political platform, as such, was absent in the movement.
Symbolism of the uprising
The uprising began under different slogans. In Krotovsky district a red banner with a black cross and the inscription was captured: “We are fighting for bread. Do not fester him in barns. " In the area of Armizonsky - a green banner (symbolizing green fields) with the inscription in white letters (meaning Siberian snow) "Down with Communism". In the area of Kusseriaka, a tricolor banner (with crimson flowers) was seized, and there was a demand to bring Prince Mikhail Alexandrovich to power.
One of the first slogans was “Long live free trade”. In the majority, the slogans “Down with the Communists”, “Long Live the Non-Party Councils of Peasant Deputies”, “All Power to the Peasants”, etc., were more often repeated under the slogan that demanded elimination from the power of the Communists, and they were full of appeals and flags , reports and orders of staffs. The latter, in some cases, on all papers in relations with other headquarters or units, put the slogan ahead of the contents of the paper: "Down with the Communists."
Information of the headquarters of the People’s Insurgent Army of the Lapushino volost of the Kurgan district to the military leader of the Lebyazhievsky volost on February 19, 1921: “The headquarters of the Lapushino People’s Army sets the flag and slogan for the insurgent people: a green flag signifying forests, meadows and plants on the fields of a peasant worker using those; the inscription on the flag in white letters means Siberian snow; slogan - “Down with communism! Long live the advice! ”  .
Nature of the fighting
According to the testimony of the chairman of the Sibrevkoma I. N. Smirnov, belonging to the middle of March 1921, the losses of the Red Army men and insurgents amounted to 1 to 15. If the rebel terror and violence were mostly “selective” (individual or group, but narrowly directed) - for example, against the communists, prodrabotkov, the enemy behaved in a completely different way. The orders of the Soviet command contain demands to shoot on the spot without a trial everyone captured with weapons, to take and shoot hostages for destroying the railway line and telegraph lines, for assisting the rebels, to burn and destroy entire villages that supported the rebels or put up stubborn resistance. The Communist leadership did not express a desire to compromise in order to stop the hostilities, put forward before the rebels to conduct peace negotiations obviously unacceptable conditions for the latter, threatened the commanders and commissars who showed peacemaking initiative. Widespread executions of civilians in the communist parts were widespread. For damage to the railroad tracks of the Red Army burned all the villages within a radius of 10 miles. According to I. N. Smirnov, in less than the first month and a half of the fighting in the Ishim district, about 7,000 were killed and 15,000 peasants in Petropavlovsk.
By order of Sibrevkoma dated February 12, 1921, responsibility for the preservation of railways was assigned to residents of settlements adjacent to the line, from which hostages were taken, who were shot in the event of the appearance of peasant detachments in the area. Those who give shelter to the “bandits” are also shot. The Order of the Plenipotentiary Commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee No. 171 dated June 11, 1921 introduced executions of hostages in “gangster” villages until complete submission and issuance of “gangsters” and active participation against “gangsterism”. Persons providing shelter to the families of “bandits” were equated to the “gang” concealers with all the ensuing consequences, that is, they were shot.
Eliminating the rebellion
For the convenience of the management of Soviet troops, the area of the uprising was divided into three sections: the Northern (Ishim), the Southern (Petropavlovsky), and the Western (Kamyshlovsko-Shadrinsky). The additional troops that came to the aid, who had experience in fighting the rebels in Altai and the Volga region, stopped the advance of the rebels in the southern regions of Western Siberia and in the middle of February 1921, using armored trains and artillery, struck counter blows along the railway lines from the Urals and Omsk. The stations and especially the village of Golyshmanovo turned out to be well-fortified on the northern line. Three thousand peasants, led by engineers at 33rd Pollester (field construction) who had fallen to their side, built powerful defensive lines and fought for two weeks. After the regiments of 21 divisions arrived as reinforcements of 232 and 253, entered the rear of the rebels, the defenders left the village and moved to the north. On February 24, 1921, units of the Red Army, moving towards each other along the northern highway, joined at Vagai station. By March 4, the Omsk-Chelyabinsk line was cleared and train traffic along the southern branch was restored. As a result of these operations, one of the largest groups - Ishimsko-Petropavlovsk, which had more than 20,000 insurgents, was surrounded by the headquarters of the Siberian Front. Among the trapped demoralized rebels clashes began. In one of them, the commander-in-chief of the rebels, V. A. Rodin, died. Fighting off the enemy who was pressing in, the rebels created several fortified lines while trying to break free from the ring. Twice, on March 8 and 17, their considerable forces, breaking through the front line in the west in the region with. Armizonskogo , went to Yalutorovsk and Kurgan counties. For the third time they tried to break through on March 18 in a southerly direction, with the aim of uniting with S. Tokarev's Cossack division. But the plan failed, few went to Cossack villages, most died or were captured.
In early March 1921, the Red Army attacked from Petropavlovsk to the south, up the Ishim River. In the battle near the village of Yavlenka, the rebels in the amount of up to three thousand people put up stubborn resistance, but they failed to stop the enemy. March 5, after a two-hour battle, they left the city Kokchetav . It was not possible to retreat to the south towards the city of Atbasar , since south of the village Sandyktav the path was closed by the Red Army. March 9 there was a decisive battle. The village burned down. The rebels, seeing the futility of the battle, changed the direction of movement from south to east, in the direction of Pavlodar . Further advance of the Red Army units led to the elimination of the threat of the rebel capture of Akmolinsk. On March 17, the Siberian Cavalry Division of S. Tokarev retreating from Petropavlovsk was defeated. Remains of the Cossacks with the joined detachments of Kokchetav and Akmola rebels, a total of two thousand fighters, fled east to the Chinese border. In mid-May 1921, they went to China .
At a time when the Red Army led the offensive south of the Trans-Siberian highway, in the north of Western Siberia, the communist detachments continued to retreat. The rebels, using the numerical superiority and support of the population, moved step by step, occupying the territory north of Tobolsk. Attempts by the leadership of Berezovsky and Surgut counties by joint forces to stop the rebels were unsuccessful. March 8, the rebels occupied the village of Samarovo . March 9 took Surgut . March 21 - Berezovo , April 1 - Obdorsk .
South of Tobolsk in March 1921, the rebels fought defensive battles, in the area with. Yarkovo , on the Tyumen-Tobolsk highway. Under the influence of failures and agitation of the rebels, the Kazan regiment of the Red Army advancing along the route proved to be incapable. The Red Army men were not eager to fight the rebel peasants. The first and second companies went over to the side of the rebels with full armament, and the fourth and fifth companies that had not decided to leave, “took up the crossbows in their hands”. The units of the VNUS (internal service), which tried to advance from the west along the Tavda River and trampled in one place, acted badly.
Until the end of February, there were no strong battles in the Aromashevsky and Krotovsky volosts of the Ishim district. Soviet troops acted mainly along the railway line, and only with the elimination of the “Golyshmanovskaya traffic jam” at the end of February 1921, they launched an offensive against this area. In early March, fierce battles for the village of Aromashevo began . During the week it changed hands several times. And only on March 10, 1921, after the rebels withdrew their main forces to the village of Malinovka, the Red Army soldiers occupied it. Three days later, Malinovka was also occupied, after which the advancing units were divided into two groups: one group advanced along the Ishimsko-Tobolsk highway and the other advanced parallel to the west of the Vagai river. From the east, down the Irtysh, Tobolsk-Tara communist detachments moved to their aid. In early April, the Red Army soldiers advancing from the south, without waiting for the Irtysh to open up and the rebels to take advantage of the river fleet, crossed the river and, united with the Tobolsk-Tara squad, approached the partisan capital, Tobolsk .
At this time, the situation in the Tyumen-Tobolsk area also began to change. By the order of Shorin, the demoralized Kazan regiment was replaced by the 187th and 189th regiments of the 63rd brigade of the 21st rifle division. Two battalions of the 647th regiment were reinforced by detachments operating along the Tavda River. With the approach of fresh parts of the Red Army, they intensified. The rebels slowly began to retreat to Tobolsk. The catastrophe occurred on April 6, when suddenly for the defenders, units of the 232nd regiment, advancing from the south, changing direction, went into the rear of the People’s Army on the Tyumen-Tobolsk direction and cut off the route to retreat. Caught in the semicircle, the rebels, led by the commander of the southwestern front, Danilov, were forced to abandon their positions and retreat to the north with off-road fighting, bypassing Tobolsk.
On April 7, the Red Army units began to storm the city and occupied it the next day. Five thousand rebels were captured. The leaders of the rebels with the remnants of the People's Army retreated to the north and continued the struggle. The spring thaw that had come in slowed down the actions of the Red Army. An exceptional role in subsequent events was played by a small landing party consisting of 40 people under the command of P. I. Loparev. Formed in Tyumen, he made a thousand-kilometer transition and on May 11, with a sudden blow, using the state of demoralization in the ranks of the rebels, he captured with. Samarovo. 200 insurgents and their headquarters were taken prisoner. The next day, hundreds of partisans went on the offensive against the village in order to defeat the landing, but at the beginning of the battle they were unlucky - Commander B. Svatosh was killed. The operation failed. A few days later, on May 16, not far from Samarovo, the Red Army soldiers overtook one of the rebel groups. In this battle, the commander of the People's Army V. M. Zheltovsky was killed. At the end of May, Birch and Surgut were occupied by troops landing on the armored vessels, June 2 - Obdorsk .
The village of Aromashevo turned into a center of resistance in the north of Ishim district: there were about 10 thousand insurgents here. “In persistent night battles on April 28 for Evsino and on May 1 for Aromashevo, Soviet troops inflicted tremendous damage on the rebels. The latter lost about 700 people killed, wounded and drowned, about 5,700 prisoners, a lot of weapons and most of the convoy. On May 1-3, pursuing the fleeing rebels, the Reds took Ovsovo, Krotovo, Bolshoy Kusseriak and Pokrovka, where they completed the rout of the main forces of the North Ishim Front, ”writes the doctor of historical sciences, professor V.I. Shishkin from Novosibirsk. Pyotr Semyonovich Shevchenko managed to keep a significant part of the detachment, which became known as the 1st Liberation Regiment of the People's Army.
Since the summer of 1921, the rebels have moved on to partisan fighting tactics.
At the beginning of August 1921, the 1st Liberation Regiment of the People’s Army occupied Krotov, Aromashevo, Great Sorokino and Pinigino, captured the Red Cartoons. Mobilization was carried out, to which the majority of the population willingly agreed. Late at night on August 25, 1921, the consolidated detachment of Burichenkov made a speech out of the village of Kochkovatovo towards the island Pritynny. Only in the morning the Reds got to the place. The rebels, confident of their safety, had only close guard guard. Soviet infantry, which had almost a triple superiority in numbers, suddenly attacked the partisans head-on. They entered into a firefight with the attackers, completely forgetting about the flanks. And then unexpectedly for the partisans the cavalry collapsed on the flanks. Shevchenko was hacked down and 111 insurgents were hacked to death with him, 4 fixed machine guns were taken.
In the summer of 1921, a massive famine began in Ishim, which continued in 1922. An epidemic of cholera broke out. According to incomplete official data, there were 8159 cases of death from hunger. The unprecedented famine, the collection of the pre-tax again increased the hostility of the peasantry towards the RCP (b) and its local representatives. On the basis of hunger, the criminal plunder of banditry took on serious proportions, and even at the end of 1922 small predatory gangs were operating in the Ishim district, robberies and murders took place.
The fighting continued for another year, the last pockets of the uprising were finally eliminated only by the end of 1922. During the suppression of the uprising, punitive operations were carried out. The taking of peasants, relatives of the rebels, as a hostage was practiced. Artillery fire killed many civilians, including women and children.
Leaders of the Uprising
The rebels organized their armed forces on the principles of the regular army, including political departments and political committees. On the Northern branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway there was a Golyshmanovskaya group with the center in the village of Golyshmanovo , in the southern, near the stations of Makushino - Petukhovo ; between Ishim and Petropavlovsk - Ishim Folk Army; in Tobolsk district - Tobolsk People's Army; in the Kurgan district - Kurgan division; east of Petropavlovsk - Eastern rebel group; south of Petropavlovsk - First Siberian Cavalry Division; in the Yalutor district - the Peasant army. They were headed by headquarters, for example, the Main Siberian Headquarters in the Ishim-Petropavlovsk District, headed by former lieutenant V.A. Rodin. The military leadership was mainly carried out by the commanders of the peasant environment, prepared and tempered in the battles of two wars - the First World War and the Civil War . The command staff consisted of former non-commissioned officers , warrant officers . A single rebel headquarters did not exist. There was no unity in the individual divisions and armies. The peasants sought to create military units in the parish and not to go far from their village.
On the initiative of Tatarintsev (forester of the Borovsk dacha), the beginning of the reorganization of the rebel military apparatus. This period began in mid-February 1921. A plan was drawn up according to which the entire rebel front was divided into groups:
- Vostochnaya - Vakarinsky headquarters [Kopotilovsky parish], commander Gorbachev (kulak D. Gagaryevskaya); his army acts in the direction of art. Mangut near the village of Sladkovskaya, the village of M [Alyy] Kurtal, the village of Usovskoe;
- Ishimskaya - headquarters in the village of Lariha, then the village of Gagaryevskaya, the village of Chirki and the village of Okunevo, the commander Grigory Atamanov (an employee of the Ishimskiy Ukomenkomat, a commission for the registration of horses in the Ishimsky district); acted in the Ishim direction and had a goal to occupy the city of Ishim and capture railway tracks from a competition with the Southern Insurgent Front, parts of which captured the city of Petropavlovsk, an armored train, several stations, a lot of weapons, guns and fire-fighting equipment; Volost insurgent military associations went to form the Ishim army: Sitnikovskaya, Armizonskaya, Orlovskaya, Razhevskaya, Istoshinskaya, Peganovskaya, Berdyuzhskaya, Gagaryevskaya, Loktinskaya;
- Peter and Paul Front - the commander Morev, the main directions: Isilkulskoe, Petropavlovsk, Petuhovskoe. In the subsequent period, the commanders appointed Cossack troops from behind the Ishim Front.
The main headquarters (or headquarters of the Siberian Front) was located in the village. Nalobinsky. Chief was Rodin. The former colonel of the General Staff Kudryavtsev was appointed chief of the headquarters of the Cossack army in Novo-Nikolaevskaya stanitsa, and Cherdyntsev was appointed head of the front headquarters. The following people obeyed the headquarters: 1) Ishim Front, 2) Petropavlovsk-Petukhovsky, 3) Cossack Front. By order No. 31 of February 24, 1921, Rodinov appointed Chervyakov to head the Zaishim group. The main headquarters gave directives to the fronts, resolved various administrative issues, believing itself to be the temporary host in the army, prior to the elections at the congress of a special military council of several elected persons, and orders extended not only to the villages, but also to the cities. The main headquarters conducted the disbandment of all volost and rural headquarters, instead of which rural and volost commandants were appointed with duties: maintaining communication, placing passing detachments, setting up rear areas, controlling the travelers, escorting and keeping prisoners and detainees. It was prescribed to make all the formations in the correct units, to bring individual detachments into companies, battalions, regiments and divisions.
- Zheltovsky Vasily Maksimovich (1895 - May 1921) - one of the main military leaders of the rebels of Tobolsk district , from the peasants of the village Zheltovskoe of the Kugaevsky volost of Tobolsk district . Member of the First World War , sergeant major . At the beginning of 1921, he served as the clerk of the military registration and enlistment office of the Kugaevo volost and had a farm below average.
- Danilov, Stepan Ilyich - a participant in the First World War , a resident of the village of Taratukhina, Karachinsk volost, Tobolsk district , was the organizer and commander of the rebels of the Karachinsk volost , then commander of the Southwestern front of Tobolsk district.
- Korotkov Alexander S. - a contractor in the Kolchak army, and in January 1921 - authorized representative of the Ishim district military registration and enlistment office for the purchase of horses, then - the head of the rebels of the Churtan volost (in Krotovsky district), commander of the Northern front of the Ishim district (d. 1921)
- Rodin, Vladimir Alekseevich (? —1921) - Head of the Petropavlovsk Military District of the Ishim Insurgency Front, Commander-in-Chief of the People’s Siberian Army, former lieutenant
- Uzhentsov B. - Head of the 1st Northern Detachment of the Rebels of Tobolsk County
- Klepinin P.P. (d. 1921) - military leader of the People’s Rebel Army of Tobolsk County
- Kutyrev T. - Commander of the Peoples Green Army of the Razhevsky District, Ishim County .
- Bogachev - Deputy Commander of the South Ishim Insurgent Army
- Atamanov, Grigory Danilovich (1898-1921) - commander of the 1st insurgent corps, commander of the front of the rebels of Ishim district (south of Ishim), son of kulak (d. Smirnovo).
- Shchetkov - chief of staff of the 1st rebel corps.
- Dolin, Petr Lavrentievich - Commander of the 2nd Corps of the Peoples Army of the Razhevsky District, Ishim County
- Romanov - Chief of the Main Military Staff of the rebels of Kokchetav district .
- Tatarintsev (Volkomtrud) Nikolay Andronovich - Chief of Staff of the Southern Army (Group) of the Ishim Rebel Rebels
- Burakov - employee of the Vikulovsky forest area, deputy chief of staff of the Northern front of the rebels of Ishim district (died 1921)
- Shchetkov - Chief of Staff of the 1st Corps of the Insurgents of Ishim County
- Protopopov - Chief of Staff of the Southern Rebel Division, Ishim District
- Andreev P. - peasant of the village Glubokoe of the Sokolov volost, head of the Glubokovo insurgent village headquarters, commander of the Petropavlovsk military district (direction) of the rebels of Ishim district
- Puzhevsky, Vatslav Leopoldovich (1898-1921) - a native of the Kovno province, from peasants; from November 1920, he worked as a bookkeeper of the cooperative in the village of Sokolovskoye, Ishimsky district; from February 12, 1921, he was the chief of staff of the Petropavlovsk military district, from February 22 - chief of the General Staff of the Siberian Front, then the adjutant of the same headquarters; taken prisoner by Soviet troops and sentenced on May 25, 1921 to Omsk sponge on May 27, 1921, shot dead
- Berdyugin - head of the western section of the Ishim rebel front, head of the 1st Ishim insurgent division
- Edlichko - Head of the South Ishim Insurgent Division, Chief of Staff of the People’s Insurgent Army of the Petukhov District.
- Petrov - Officer of the 3rd Division of the 33rd Field Construction, then - the commander of the rebel detachment Golyshmanovskogo area
- Afanasyev, Afanasy Gerasimovich - a resident of the village of Krupino, chief of staff of the insurgents of the Golyshmanovsky volost, Ishim district, was shot by verdict of the Revolutionary Tribunal in 1921
- Bogomolov Semyon - Chief of Staff of the Rebels of the Golyshmanov Volost, Ishim County
- Nosov - Chief of Staff of the Rebels of the Golyshmanovsky Volost, Ishim County
- Ponomarev - a resident of the village Golyshmanovo, chief of staff of the insurgents of the Golyshmanov volost of Ishim district
- Feofanov F. (? -1921) - employee of the 3rd department of the 33rd field construction, then - the chief and instructor of the rebel headquarters of the Golyshmanovsky volost in Ishim district
- Gutnikov G.V. - head of the special department of the Tobolsk General Staff. He was born into a peasant family in the village of Medyanka, Karachinskaya volost, Tobolsk district, graduated from the village school, participated in the imperialist war, was wounded, returned to his homeland. With the frequent change of power in the civil war, he invariably occupied elective posts (chairman of the volost territorial council, secretary of the executive committee, and others). In October 1920, G.V. Gutnikov was elected a member of the district executive committee of the Soviets, from where he was sent for food work, having been appointed to the position of head of the Demyansky food supply company. When the uprising began, peasants of the Karachinskaya volost, as usually happened during the change of power, put forward GV Gutnikov to the main headquarters of the Tobolsk People's Army, as they had nothing against their fellow countryman.
- Burlakov - Commander of the 1st Cavalry Regiment of the Southern Insurgent Division of Ishim County
- Panfilov I. N. - Commander of the 1st Infantry Regiment, Deputy Head of the South Ishim Insurgent Division
- Bukhvalov - commander of the 2nd Infantry Regiment of the Southern Insurgent Division of Ishim County (died 1921)
- Kuzevanov - commander of the 3rd Infantry Regiment of the Southern Insurgent Division of Ishim County.
- Dyachkov Efim - Adjutant of the Headquarters, later - the commander of the battalion, the commander of the 4th infantry regiment of the South Ishim insurgent division
- Tseluiko (Tselikov) - commander of the 4th infantry regiment of Ishim district insurgents
- Orlov - commander of a rebel regiment of the southern part of Ishim district
- Varaksin - commander of the 2nd Liberation Regiment of the insurgents of Yalutor district (died 1922)
- Guba (Gubanov Peter) - commander of the cavalry regiment of the rebels of the Nalobinsky volost, Ishim district, head of the volunteer formations of the General Staff of the Siberian front, then - commander of the Siberian front
- Bazhenov - commander of the 2nd Medvedev regiment of the rebels of Ishim district
- Golden Eagles - one of the leaders of the rebels of Kamyshlovsky and Shadrinsky counties
- Shevchenko, Petr Semenovich - a peasant-middle peasant of the village of Big Kusseriak, Ishim district . He raised an uprising in his native village, and later commanded the rebel regiment .
- Bulatov Nikolay - a peasant from the village of Kurtan, Mogilev volost, Kurgan district , ensign of the tsarist army, instructor of the Red Army All-Education . The commander of the 2nd Liberation Regiment of the Kurgan Rebel Division , then the head of the 1st Yalutor liberation detachment, was taken prisoner, the fate was unknown.
- Kadyshnikov Afanasy - the commander of a rebel detachment of the village of Melekhin, Lokta parish, Ishim district
- Nazarov, Yevgraf Ivanovich (? -1921) - organizer of the uprising in the village of Nazarov, Chelnokovo Volost, Ishim district, shot by revtribunal sentence
- Dudarev - the commander of the rebel detachment Yurginskogo district Yalutorovskogo county.
- Rezonov, Moses Leontievich - organizer of the uprising in the village of Pestovo of the Churtan volost of Ishim district
- Sitnikov, Timofey Nikanorovich (? -1921) - the leader of the uprising in the village of Malakhov in the Churta parish of Ishim district
- Petrov - the head of the rebels in the Mamlyut district
- E. V. Filimonov - Head of the Rebels of the Suersky Volost, Yalutor District
- Serkov, Semyon Mikhailovich (1882–1922) - from the townspeople of the city of Kurgan, in 1917 was in the party of the Social Revolutionaries; in early 1921 he served as head of the supply department of the Tobolsk Regional Forestry Committee; under the rebels, he was a member of the commission of inquiry and was elected a candidate member of the Tobolsk Peasant City Council; it was precisely at the Socialist Revolutionary past of Serkov that the Tyumen Gubchek made its conclusion about the leadership of the Social Revolutionary Party by the uprising in Tobolsk district; shot on February 28, 1922 by order of the board of the Tyumen sponge
Among the commanders of the rebel detachments were communists, such as, for example, the chairman of the cell of the RCP (b) and the former military commissar of the Trinity volost of Petropavlovsk district Timofey Lidberg .
Leaders of the liquidation of the uprising
On 12 February, the plenipotentiary troika was created to lead the liquidation of the uprising — Chairman I. Sibrevkoma N. Smirnov , Assistant Commander-in-Chief of the Republic's Armed Forces in Siberia V. I. Shorin , Chairman Sib. Cheka I. P. Pavlunovsky . Parts of rifle divisions, several cavalry and rifle regiments, 4 armored trains were redeployed, special purpose units (CHON) were used .
- Zvezdov, Andrei Alekseevich (1888-1930) - Bolshevik since 1905, from November 1920 - Commander of the troops of the VNUS of Siberia, from January 24, 1921 - Chief of Troops of the Cheka of Siberia.
- Mrachkovsky, Sergey Vitalyevich (1888–1936) - Bolshevik since 1905, during the civil war he commanded a brigade and a special expeditionary detachment on the Eastern Front, and from August 1920 he was commander of the troops of the Ural military district.
- Vasilyev, Makar Vasilyevich (1889-1940) - Assistant Commander of the Priuralsky Military District.
- Oparin, Vladimir Efimovich (1872-?) - in 1898 he graduated from the Law Faculty of St. Petersburg University, a Bolshevik from March 1917; during the civil war he was on the Eastern Front, occupying military-political posts; Chairman of the Revolutionary Tribunal of Siberia.
- Ivanov, Nikolai Ivanovich - a communist, chairman of the Tyumen provincial tribunal, deputy chairman of the Tyumen GubChK.
- Loparev, Platon Ilyich (1890–1938) - from the peasants of the village of Samarovo, Tobolsk district, one of the leaders of the anti-Kolchak partisan movement in the Ob North, in 1921 - the commander of the Northern Expeditionary Detachment of Soviet Forces.
- Pomglavkom headquarters for Siberia
- Afanasyev, Fedor Mikhailovich - Chief of Staff of Pomglavkomka in Siberia
- P.V. Dashkevich - Commissioner of the Pomglavkom Headquarters for Siberia
- 13th Siberian Cavalry Division
- 21st Infantry Division of the VNUS (chief of Yegorov, Fedor Vasilyevich , Commander of the Peter and Paul Group of Soviet Forces)
- 29th Siberian Rifle Division (Head Karpov, Vladimir Fedorovich )
- 57th Infantry Division (Chief and Military Commissar Bobylev, Ivan Alexandrovich (1886-1936))
- 61st rifle brigade of the VNUS troops (commander Polisonov, Alexander Vladimirovich (then the 115th rifle brigade), commander of the Soviet troops of the Tyumen province)
- 83rd Infantry Brigade (Commander Rakhmanov, Nikolai Nikolayevich )
- 85th Infantry Brigade (Commander Burichenkov, Georgy Andreevich , Commander of the Soviet troops of the Tyumen province)
- 115th Infantry Brigade (commander Polisonov, Alexander Vladimirovich ), commander of the Soviet troops of the Tyumen province
- 169th Infantry Brigade (Commander Boytsov, Andrei Semenovich , Commander of the Tyumen Province)
- 181st Infantry Regiment of the Troops of the VNUS (Commanders Nakrap, Evgeny Ivanovich (Nakrapov), Head of the Yalutorovskiy combat sector; Efremov-Larin A.)
- The 183rd Infantry Regiment of the Troops of the VNUS (commanders Zaikin, Ivan Vasilyevich ; Makhnev successively the head of the Tyumen, Yalutorovsky and Tobolsk-Tyumen military sectors, the commander of the Kazan rifle regiment)
- 187th Infantry Regiment
- The 232nd regiment of the 26th rifle division (commander Batkunov, Arseny Nikolayevich , was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for participating in the defeat of the rebels)
- 255th Infantry Regiment (Commander Dubrovitsky, Sergey Stepanovich )
- 258th Infantry Regiment
- 343rd Infantry Regiment (Commander A. Efremov-Larin)
- Tyumen Territorial Regiment (Commander Kozlenke, Pavel Semenovich )
- squadron named Sibrevkoma (commander Buzin Fedor)
Uprising was one of the main reasons replacing the surplus with a tax in advance on March 21, 1921, and further determined the transition from the policy of war communism to the NEP .
- West Siberian Uprising of 1921 // Great Russian Encyclopedia : [in 35 t.] / Ch. ed. Yu. S. Osipov . - M .: The Great Russian Encyclopedia, 2004—2017.
- SIBERIAN WANDEA
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- For advice without the Communists. Peasant uprising in the Tyumen province (1921). Collection of documents / Compiled by V.I. Shishkin. Novosibirsk: Siberian Chronograph, 2000. 744 p .;
- Siberian Vendée. V. 2 (1920-1921). Documents. M., 2001.
- Shishkin V.I. On the Characteristics of Socio-Political Moods and Views of the Participants of the West-Siberian Insurgency in 1921 // Humanities in Siberia. Series: Domestic history. Novosibirsk, 1996. No. 2. P.55-62.
- Shishkin V.I. Siberian Vendée. Armed resistance to the communist regime in the 1920s. Novosibirsk: Olsib Publishing House, 1997, 710 p.
- Shishkin V.I. On the Question of the New Concept of the History of the West-Siberian Uprising of 1921 // Humanities in Siberia. Series: Domestic history. Novosibirsk, 1997. № 2. S. 46-54.
- Shishkin V.I. On the question of the role of the Siberian Peasant Union in the preparation of the West-Siberian insurgency in 1921 // Siberia at the turn of the 19th — 20th centuries. Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk State University, 1997. pp. 88-96.
- Shishkin V.I. West-Siberian insurrection of 1921: circumstances and causes of occurrence // Socio-cultural development of Siberia in the XVII — XX centuries. Bakhrushin Readings 1996 Inter-University Sat. scientific works. Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk State University, 1998. p. 91-99.
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- Siberian Vendée. 1919-1920. Documents. In two volumes / Comp. V.I. Shishkin, resp. ed. A. N. Yakovlev. M .: International Fund "Democracy", 2000. T. 1, 644 p.
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- Daily newspaper "Soviet Siberia" No. 57 March 16, 1921. Omsk (article: Trial of the enemies of the working people)
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- “It should be emphasized that the diversity of forms, as well as the concentration of arbitrariness and violence that was carried out in Ishim district in late 1920 - early 1921 along the state line and on the“ personal initiative ”of various party-Soviet functionaries, were unprecedented for the local population . According to the peasants themselves, including the rural communists and Soviet workers, the messengers of the city in the village surpassed all that the Kolchak punishers did one and a half or two years ago in terms of crime acts and cruelty of behavior. Paradoxically, but a fact: many of the political workers of the Red Army and employees of the Revolutionary Tribunals who were involved in ascertaining the causes of the uprisings were sincerely convinced that the arbitrariness and violence that caused the insurrection was the work of the counter-revolutionists who had penetrated into the local party-soviet bodies, and not the real communists. . They didn’t believe or didn’t want to believe that their party comrades are capable of such a thing. ”
Shishkin V.I. On the issue of the new concept of the West-Siberian insurrection
- Banners of anti-Bolshevik armed groups in 1920-30 (inaccessible link) . The appeal date is December 8, 2012. Archived August 12, 2012.