His Imperial Majesty Agustin I, Agustin de Iturbide, Agustin de Iturbide y Aramburu ( Spanish: Agustín de Itúrbide y Aramburu ; September 27, 1783 , Valladolid , New Spain - July 19, 1824 , Padilla , Mexico ) - m. and statesman, general , president of the Regency Council of the empire from August 24, 1821 to May 21, 1822 , emperor of Mexico from May 18, 1822 (the adoption of the constitutional oath took place on May 21 ) to March 29, 1823 . Hero of the War of Independence and the first ruler of independent Mexico.
|Agustin I, Agustín Cosme Damian de Itúrbide y Aramburu|
|Coronation||July 21, 1822|
|Heir||Agustin Jeronimo de Iturbide|
|Birth||September 27, 1783 |
Valladolid , now Morelia , Mexico
|Death||July 19, 1824 (aged 40)|
Padilla , Mexico
|Father||Don José Joaquin de Iturbide i Aramburu|
|Mother||Dona Maria Josefa de Aramburu y Carrillo de Figueroa|
|Spouse||Anna Maria Worthy|
|Children||, , , , , , and|
Agustin de Iturbide is the son of a Spanish nobleman and Creole.
In 1798 he entered the Spanish army, where in 1820 he rose to the rank of colonel .
In 1809 - 1810 he contributed to the suppression of Mexican uprisings against Spanish rule. When the War of Independence of Mexico began in 1810, he issued an appeal declaring that he wanted to see Mexico as a constitutional monarchy.
In the war of independence, such people stood out as Miguel Hidalgo i Costilla , Vicente Guerrero , Jose Maria Morelos . The war lasted eleven years until liberation troops entered Mexico City.
In 1815, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Spaniards in two provinces, but in 1816 he was suspected of treason by the Spanish government and resigned.
1819 - rejoined the army, but joined the party of insurgents and in an appeal issued on February 21, 1821 , demanded the introduction of a constitutional form of government in Mexico. The number of his adherents grew rapidly; his troops took Mexico City , after which he convened a junta there on September 27, 1821 .
The latter could not agree on a form of government, but the garrison of Mexico City proclaimed him emperor. The next day, Congress confirmed this election, and Iturbide ascended to the Mexican throne under the name of Emperor Agustin I (this decision was considered temporary until there was some European prince worthy of the Mexican throne).
His coronation took place on July 21, 1822 , the priest erected a gold crown on the head of the emperor and handed the scepter . The eldest son Agustin Jeronimo de Iturbide received the title of imperial prince and heir to the Mexican empire, the younger sons, brothers and sisters received the titles of princes and princesses, the father of the emperor Joaquin received the title of prince.
The empire faced pressure from Republicans as well as military garrisons. Iturbide, gathering his loyal supporters, went to suppress the uprisings in the provinces. Soon, however, government funds were depleted. The successful uprising in Veracruz led by L. de Santa Anna led to the fact that Iturbide voluntarily resigned on March 29, 1823 , writing in writing motivating this step with the desire to preserve the national and state unity of the country. Congress appointed him and his family an annual upkeep, but demanded that he leave the country and go abroad. He emigrated to Italy .
Arrest and Execution
In 1824 Iturbide returned from Europe in the hope of regaining power. The Mexican Congress outlawed him and decided to put him to death immediately upon landing. Nevertheless, Iturbide, disguised, entered Mexican soil. At the same time, several provinces revolted. However, he was arrested in Tamaulipas and executed on July 19. His supporters and monarchists unsuccessfully tried to free him more than once.
Por la Divina Providencia y por el Congreso de la Nación, primer emperador constitucional de México ("By God's Providence and the Will of the National Congress, First Constitutional Emperor of Mexico").
- Statement of some of the principal events in the public life of Augustin de Iturbide, written by himself. - L. , 1824.
- Alperovich M.S. War for the independence of Mexico (1810-1824). - M .: Nauka , 1964 .-- S. 268-338.
- Iturbide, Augustine // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.