Penance , or penance ( dr. Greek ἐπι-τῑμία - “punishment, punishment” , lat. Poenitentia ) - a type of church punishment for the laity in the Christian Church; the value of moral-corrective measures.
In the Orthodox Church
In Orthodoxy, penance is not considered God's satisfaction for sins , and it can not be imposed on the penitent, who sincerely repents and promises not to repeat sins. At present, in Orthodoxy, penance is rarely imposed, and mainly on those who persist in some kind of sin, and if the priest is convinced that penance will not lead to despair , nor to laziness and neglect. The imposed penance cannot be beyond the capabilities of man. Orthodox canon law defines penance not as a punishment or punitive measure for committed sins, but as "spiritual healing." It is important to consider that penance is not an absolute necessity when confessing. The degree and duration of penance is due to the severity of sinful crimes, but depends on the discretion of the confessor. The severe penances provided by the ancient canons (long-term excommunication from the sacrament , even the order to pray not in the temple, but on the porch, etc.), are currently practically not used. A special “Prayer over permissible from prohibition” is read over the person who has performed penance, through which he is fully restored to his “church rights”. In pre-revolutionary Russia, there was, moreover, penance imposed by a civil court on the basis of criminal laws for apostasy, sacrilege, false oath, and some serious moral crimes. Unlike the penance prescribed by the confessor, it had a certain meaning of punishment. The methods of its execution and control were carried out by the diocesan authorities, which received a court decision.
The monastery penance was known as "the exile to the monastery under the beginning." The time of the link was indicated by a definite period - for a year or two, or indefinite - “before the decree”, “the woman will come to feeling”. Those responsible for marriage affairs were subjected to the same punishment. The most common and widespread penance of the first half of the 19th century, appointed by the consistory, was obeisances. The number of bows was different (from 150 to 1000), but no more than 100 had to be done at a time. The condemned to the bows had to put them on the altar of that cathedral or city in whose county he lived.
- Excommunication from the Eucharist
In Orthodoxy, penance, consisting in excommunication from participation in the Eucharist , was appointed for sins explicit and more important. There was such an indication of the rules of the Holy Fathers regarding the terms of excommunication:
- to heretics and schismatics - until they renounce their delusions,
- blood mixers - for 12 years,
- adulterers - from 9 to 15 years old,
- killers - up to 25 years old,
- husbands up to 15 years old,
- to livestock - up to 15 years or until the end of life,
- oath - criminals - up to 10 years,
- wizards - up to 25 years old,
- grave diggers - for 10 years.
In the Catholic Church
In the Latin rite of the Catholic Church, penance is appointed as a priest to a penitent, usually during each confession. Except in special cases, penance consists in reciting a certain number of prayers.
- Prot. Vladislav Tsypin //. Penance // Orthodox Encyclopedia . - M .: Church Scientific Center "Orthodox Encyclopedia" , 2008. - T. XVIII. - S. 533-535. - 752 s. - 39,000 copies. - ISBN 978-5-89572-032-5 .
- Markov N.F. Epitimia // Orthodox Theological Encyclopedia . - SPb. : Edition of Petrograd. Appendix to the spiritual journal "Wanderer", 1904. - V. 5. - St. 475
- Complete Church Slavonic Dictionary (Archpriest G. Dyachenko), p. 175
- Penance // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Bulgakov S.V. Handbook of Sacred Church Ministers. Moscow, 1993.T. II. S. 1115-1122.
- Archbishop Plato (Thebes) . About penance.
- Archpriest Gennady Nefedov. Textbook on liturgics. About penances
- Nicodemus (Milash) . Rules of the Holy Apostles and Ecumenical Councils with interpretations. Rule 5 of the Holy Apostles