Buddhism includes 11% of the population of Nepal , but possibly much more, since many Nepalese Buddhists register themselves as Hindus for political reasons. Buddhists include mainly the peoples of the Tibeto-Burmese group .
Buddhism ( Tibetan schools , primarily the traditions of Nyingma and Sakya ) dominates, not mingling with Hinduism, among the mountain peoples of the north of Nepal, closely related to Tibetans . These are primarily Sherpa , Lop , mananga , Thakali , Lhomi , Dolpa and Nymba .
The followers of Buddhism are also the peoples of central Nepal - gurungs , lepcha , tamangs , mahars , nevari , yakkhas , thams and chepangs . These peoples are in constant communication with the Hindu castes, and many of them also accept Hinduism or formally classify themselves as Hindus.
Kirant tribes, especially limbu and paradise , as well as jirel, adopt the practice of Tibetan Buddhism from neighboring peoples.
- 1 History of the penetration of Buddhism
- 2 Development of Buddhism
- 2.1 Buddhism during the Mauryev period (300-200 BC)
- 2.2 Buddhism during the Lichchavi period (400-750)
- 2.3 Buddhism in the Thaukri period (600-1200)
- 2.4 Buddhism during the Mull Dynasty (1200-1769)
- 2.5 Buddhism during the Shah Dynasty (1769-1846)
- 3 Current state of Buddhism
- 4 References
Buddhism Penetration History
According to N. A. Kanaev "Buddhism in Nepal" // Buddhism. Dictionary. M., 1992
Since the territory of modern Nepal has long been part of the states ruled by Indian rulers, the early history of Buddhism in Nepal is closely connected with the history of the emergence of Buddhism as a world religion. In southern Nepal, at the foot of the Nepal hill, is Lumbini - the birthplace of Buddha . The Nepalese Valley is often mentioned in Buddhist texts. In Nepal, there is a famous column with the inscriptions of King Ashoka (c. 250 BC ).
Buddhism during the Mauryev period ( 300-200 BC )
The Indian king Ashoka established in the II century BC. e. in Lumbini there is a column with an inscription testifying that Buddha was born here. It is also believed that it was Ashoka who installed four stupas in Patan that have survived to the present. Nepalese believe that the daughter of Ashoka Charumati founded the village of Chabahil , located between Kathmandu and Bodnath . It is believed that the stupa and monastery in Chabahil also refers to this time.
As a result of the expansion of the Mauryas, Buddhism was accepted by the ancestors of the Tharu people, living in the Terai, and flourished there, until the rulers began to persecute him in 200 BC. e. Thus, Buddhism has developed in Nepal almost since the time of the Buddha himself.
Buddhism in the Lichkhavi period ( 400 - 750 )
During the Lichchavi period, Hinduism and Buddhism flourished, as can be seen in the Hindu monuments of that period. Noteworthy is the half-flooded Buddha in Pashupatinath , the sleeping Vishnu in Budanilkantha and the Buddha statue in the temple of Changu Narayan .
Buddhist texts confirm that numerous teachers came to Nepal and created meaningful Buddhist writings.
Images of tantric deities from that period have also been preserved.
Tolerance flourished during Lichchawi in Nepal. King Manadeva worshiped both Hindu and Buddhist shrines at the same time, and his family showed great interest in various religions.
At that time, Buddhist rituals and holidays dedicated to Avalokiteshvara were adopted, which later influenced the non-New culture, as well as stone worship with the Avalokiteshvara mantra.
The names of about fifteen Buddhist monasteries of the time are known. However, it is not clear to which schools all these monasteries belonged. However, it is most likely that in Nepal, such schools of early Buddhism as the Mahasanghika , Sammatiya and Sarvastivada were represented. Later, Madhyamaka and Yogachara appeared , and later on - Vajrayana schools.
Thawkri Buddhism ( 600 - 1200 )
The first king, Thaukri Amsuvarma, married his daughter Bhrikuti to the Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo . According to legend, as a relic, the daughter received a bowl for alms of the Buddha. Tradition considers it the embodiment of Green Tara , depicted on many Tibetan tangs.
Buddhism during the Mull Dynasty ( 1200 - 1769 )
During the Malla dynasty, the most developed was the non-New culture combining Buddhism and Hinduism. Newari actively exchanged knowledge with the Tibetans and made tangky - Buddhist icons on the fabric, like the Tibetans.
Buddhism during the Shah Dynasty ( 1769 - 1846 )
During this period, Buddhism in Nepal fell into decay, Hinduism was spread everywhere as a religion of the Gurkhas . In the north of the country in the kingdom of Mustang and among the territories inhabited by thakali , Tibetan Buddhism was actively developing.
The Modern State of Buddhism
Nepal is currently practicing a form of Buddhism that is largely similar to the Indian tantra (see Vajrayana ). No "Nepalese" canon exists. Nepalese Buddhists use Buddhist texts in Sanskrit, 9 of which are especially revered by them. In Nepal, there is a small Theravada study center, founded today by Amritananda.
In 1956, the capital of Nepal, Kathmandu became the venue for the IV Congress of the "World Buddhism Brotherhood."
Modern non-Buddhist Buddhism has absorbed many elements of Hinduism . Tibetan Buddhism prevails in the northern regions.
The people of thakali , one of the most significant carriers of Buddhism, have recently begun to lean towards Hinduism .
Thousands of tourists come to Kathmandu every year to visit the monasteries and stupas of Nepal. Often, foreign organizations take patronage of the monasteries, sponsoring repairs, maintenance and sanitary conditions. Many monasteries also organize classes (seminars, retreats) for Western Buddhists.
See also Buddhism by country . See also History of Buddhism.