Aristophanes ( ancient Greek Ἀριστοφάνης ) ( 444 BC - between 387 and 380 , Athens ) - an ancient Greek comedian . The ancients called Aristophanes simply a comedian, just as Homer was known by the name of the Poet.
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Aristophanes directed his first comedy in 427 BC. e., but still under a false name. When (a year later ) he ridiculed the powerful demagogue Cleon in his Babylonians, calling him a tanner , the latter accused him before the council of having condemned and ridiculed the policy of Athens in the presence of commissioners from the union states. Later, Cleon raised a rather common accusation in Athens against him for illegally appropriating the title of Athenian citizen. Aristophanes is said to have defended himself before the court with Homer's poems:
Mother assures that I am his son, but I myself do not know:
Aristophanes avenged Cleon by brutally attacking him in the comedy Riders. The influence of this demagogue was so great that no one agreed to make a mask for Paflagonets, reminiscent of Cleon, and the image of Paflagonets was painted so repulsive that Aristophanes himself was forced to play this role. Attacks on Cleon appear in subsequent comedies.
Of the 44 comedies written by Aristophanes, 11 reached us:
- Clouds (in the later unfinished poetry processing)
- Women at Fezmofory
- Women in the assembly
- Plutos (preserved in the second edition).
All these comedies belong to the best works of the ancient scene. To understand them, one must well understand the life of the Greeks and the history of that time; only then will the reader be able to adequately appreciate the witty hints, subtle sarcasm, skill and depth of design and execution, as well as other beauty forms that brought Aristophanes the great glory of the artist of the word.
According to his political and moral convictions, Aristophanes was a supporter of antiquity, a stern defender of old beliefs, old customs, science and art. Hence his venomous mockery of Socrates , or rather, of the sophistry of the Sophists in The Clouds, his merciless attacks on Euripides in The Frogs and other comedies. The freedom of the ancient comedy gave wide scope for satire, and the courage and imagination of Aristophanes made such a limitless application of this freedom that he did not stop at anything if the subject deserved to be ridiculed. He did not spare even the Athenian demos , boldly threw into his face accusations of cowardice, frivolity, a thirst for flattering speeches, stupid gullibility, which makes him forever hope and forever disappointed. This limitless freedom of speech was, in general, a characteristic feature of the ancient comedy, in which for a long time one of the strongholds of democracy was seen; but already during the Peloponnesian war some constraints were imposed on it. Around 415, a law was passed that somewhat limited the unbridled freedom to ridicule a person. The dramatic works of Aristophanes serve as a faithful mirror of the inner life of the then Attica , although the figures and positions displayed in them are often presented in a perverted, caricature form. In the first period of his activity, he predominantly depicted social life and its representatives, while in his later comedies, politics recedes into the background. At the end of his life, he put (under the name of his son) the play “Kokalos” ( Κώκαλος ), in which a young man seduces a girl, but then marries her, finding out who she is from. With this play, as the ancients recognized, Aristophanes laid the foundation for a new comedy.
Aristophanes was a master of versification; his name is given to a special kind of anapest ( catalytic tetrameter , metrum Aristophanium ). This size is used in passionate, excited speech. In the comedy "ASSEMBLYWOMEN" Aristophanes coined the neologism, which is the longest of the famous ancient Greek word (consisting of 171 characters): λοπαδοτεμαχοσελαχογαλεο- κρανιολειψανοδριμυποτριμματο- σιλφιοκαραβομελιτοκατακεχυμενο- κιχλεπικοσσυφοφαττοπεριστερα- λεκτρυονοπτοκεφαλλιοκιγκλοπε- λειολαγῳοσιραιοβαφητραγα- νοπτερύγων
Aristophanes was considered the "father of comedy" in ancient times. The epigram attributed to Plato says: “the muses have arranged for themselves a shelter in it.” Goethe spoke of Aristophanes as "an ill-educated favorite of muses," and from the point of view of the European reader this is absolutely true. The acuity of Aristophanes often seemed to readers of the New Age rude and obscene, his expressions too naked and unclean so that educated people with their sense of grace, not bribed by the beauty of the tongue, could find artistic pleasure in them. This rudeness did not belong personally to Aristophanes, but to the whole era that used to call things by their real name.
- In the Loeb classical library series, plays were published under No. 178, 488, 179, 180, 502 (fragments).
- In the series “ Collection Budé, ” the surviving comedies are published . Archived on November 28, 2012. in 5 volumes
Russian translations ( see also in the articles about individual plays ):
- Clouds , the comedy of Aristophanes, at the Athenian theater for the first time presented during the great Dionysian festival in the first year of the LXXXIX Olympiad (in 425 BC according to Newton's reckoning), parallel. text / int. Art. and per. I.M. Muravyov-Apostol. - SPb. : Type of. N. Buckwheat. - 1821. - 314 p.
- Comedies of Aristophanes . / Per. with Greek. M. Artaud, trans. with french V. T. - St. Petersburg. , 1897. - 619 p.
- Aristophanes . Comedy / Per. A.I. Piotrovsky. In 2 vols. T. 1. - M. - L .: Academia. 1934 .-- 585 p.
- Aristophanes . Comedy / Per. A.I. Piotrovsky. In 2 vol. T. 2. - M. - L .: Academia. 1934 .-- 641 p.
- Aristophanes . Comedy In 2 tons / total. ed. F. A. Petrovsky and V. N. Yarkho (includes new translations: “Akharnyans” and “Birds” by S. Apt, “Riders” by K. Polonskaya, “Frogs” by Yu. Schulz). T. 1. - M .: State. ed. thin lit. 1954 . - 452 p.
- Aristophanes . Comedy In 2 tons / total. ed. F. A. Petrovsky and V. N. Yarkho (includes new translations: “Akharnyans” and “Birds” by S. Apt, “Riders” by K. Polonskaya, “Frogs” by Yu. Schulz). T. 2. - M .: State. ed. thin lit. 1954 . - 504 s.
- Aristophanes . Comedy / Per. A.I. Piotrovsky [M., 1934]. Fragments. / Per. M. L. Gasparova. Ed. sub. V.N. Yarho. Repl. ed. M.L. Gasparov. - M .: Nauka-Ladomir, 2000. - ( Literary monuments ). - 1080 s.
- Shestakov D.P. Experience in the study of folk speech in the comedy of Aristophanes. - Kazan , 1912 .-- 274 p.
- Yarcho V.N. Aristophanes. (On the 2400th anniversary of his birth). - M .: GLI, 1954. - 135 p. - 20,000 copies.
- Golovnya V.V. Aristophanes. - M .: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences, 1955. - 184 p. - 10,000 copies.
- Sobolevsky S.I. Aristophanes and his time: (On the 2400th anniversary of the birth of Aristophanes). - M .: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences, 1957. - 420 p. - 6000 copies.
- Aristophanes . On the 2400th anniversary of the birth of Aristophanes. Collection of articles (includes the article by S. I. Sobolevsky “Antique Comments on Aristophanes' plays”). - M .: Publishing House of Moscow State University, 1956. - 197 p. - 6000 copies.
- Huseynov G. Ch . Aristophanes. - M .: Art, 1988. - (Life in Art). - 270 p. - 50,000 copies.
- Gavrilov A.K. The scientific community of abbreviations in the "Clouds" of Aristophanes // Some problems in the history of scientific science. Collection of scientific papers. - L. , 1989 .-- S. 62-77.
- Gavrilov A.K. Aristophanes. Plutos. Art. 45–47: Interpretation Experience // Bulletin of Leningrad State University. 1975. - No. 8, Issue. 2. - S. 124-131.
- Klyachko N. B. Aristophanes on comedy // Ancient Greek literary criticism. - M. , 1975 .-- S. 304-318.
- Pablos I. A. Aristophanes: a historical novel. - M .: Project-F, 2007 .-- 278 p.
- Hall, Edith and Wrigley, Amanda (2007), Aristophanes in Performance 421 BC-AD 2007: Peace, Birds and Frogs , Legenda (Oxford)
- Silk, MS (2002), Aristophanes and the Definition of Comedy , Oxford University Press
- Skvortsov A.M., Lyubchansky I.E. Aristophanes' comedies on the tendency to change the position of women in Athens, late V - early IV centuries BC. // Adam and Eve. Almanac of gender history. - M. , 2007 - No. 14. - S. 113-121.
Scholia to Aristophanes
- Scholia to Aristophanes: edition of Dubner (1855) . Archived on November 28, 2012.
- Scholia to Aristophanes according to the plain of manuscript: edition and English translation of W. G. Rutherford (1896):
- Aristophanes // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890. - T. II. - S. 93-94.
- Aristophanes (poet) // Encyclopedic lexicon : In 17 vol. - SPb. : Type of. A. Plyushara , 1835. - T. III: ARA — AFO. - S. 54–55.
- Aristophanes in the library of Maxim Moshkov
- Texts and English translations of 11 comedies . Archived on November 28, 2012.
- Scholia to the "Birds" of Aristophanes - a study of J. White . Archived on November 28, 2012. (eng.)