African Union (abbreviated as AU, Afrosoyuz ) is an international intergovernmental organization uniting 55 states of Africa , the successor of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). It was founded on July 9, 2002  . The most important decisions within the organization are made at the Assembly of the African Union - a meeting of the heads of state and government of the member states of the organization, which is held every six months. The Secretariat of the African Union and the African Union Commission are located in Addis Ababa , the capital of Ethiopia . In February 2009, a decision was made to transform the African Union Commission into the African Union Authority  .
|Swahili Umoja wa Afrika|
Arab. الاتحاد الأفريقي
English African union
fr. Union africaine
port. União africana
African Union Flag
|Membership||55 states |
|Headquarters|| Addis Ababa , Ethiopia |
Johannesburg , South Africa
|Type of organization||International organization|
|official languages||working languages: Arabic , English , French , Portuguese , African  |
|African Union Chair||Abdul Fattah Al-Sisi|
|African Union Commission Chair||Musa Faki Muhammad|
|Chairperson of the Pan-African Parliament||Roger Nkodo Dang|
|Established (as Organization of African Unity (OAU))||May 25, 1963|
|Established (as African Union (AU))||July 9, 2002|
- 1 History
- 2 Objectives and principles
- 3 Structure
- 4 Armed forces
- 5 Member States
- 6 Countries with observer status
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
The historical predecessors of the African Union are the Union of African States , a confederation of African states created in the 1960s on the initiative of President Ghana Kwame Nkrumah , as well as the Organization of African Unity , founded 25 May 1963 , and the African Economic Community , founded in 1991 .
In view of the low efficiency and harsh criticism regarding the transformation of the Organization of African Unity into a "club of dictators"  in the mid-1990s, the idea of creating an African Union was revived on the African continent. The main supporter of the reforms was the Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi . On September 9, 1999, the heads of state and government of the member states of the Organization of African Unity adopted the Sirte Declaration (named after the city of Sirte in Libya), which stated its intention to create an African Union. In 2000 , during the Loma Summit, the Constituent Act of the African Union was adopted, and in 2001, at the Lusaka Summit, a plan for the implementation of the new organization’s project was adopted. At the same time, a large-scale program of the African development strategy was approved - " New Partnership for Africa's Development " (NEPAD; ( eng. New Partnership for Africa's Development, NEPAD ).
The African Union began operations on July 9, 2002 , replacing the Organization of African Unity.
On July 31, 2007, a joint peacekeeping operation with the UN began in Darfur .
On July 17, 2016, at the next summit of the African Union, a single African Union passport was presented, which will allow in the future to organize a visa-free regime between all member countries of the African Union   .
Goals and Principles
According to the Constituent Act of the African Union, the objectives of the organization are:
- strengthening the unity and solidarity of African states and peoples of Africa;
- protection of the sovereignty , territorial integrity and independence of Member States;
- accelerating the political and socio-economic integration of the continent;
- promoting and upholding common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples;
- promoting international cooperation in accordance with the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ;
- strengthening peace, security and stability on the continent;
- strengthening and protecting human rights in accordance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other human rights instruments;
- creating the necessary conditions thanks to which the continent can occupy a worthy place in the global economy and in international negotiations;
- promoting sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural levels, as well as the integration of African economies;
- promoting cooperation in all spheres of human activity in order to improve the living standards of the people of Africa;
- coordination and harmonization of policies between existing and future regional economic communities in order to gradually achieve the goals of the African Union;
- progress in the development of the continent through assistance in scientific research in all fields, especially in the field of science and technology;
- cooperation with relevant international partners in eradicating diseases and promoting a healthy lifestyle on the continent.
According to the Constituent Act of the African Union, the principles of the organization are:
- sovereign equality and interdependence between member states of the African Union;
- Respect for the state borders that existed at the time the states gained independence;
- African participation in the activities of the African Union;
- developing a common defense policy for the African continent;
- peaceful resolution of conflicts between member states of the Union through appropriate measures approved by the Assembly of the African Union;
- a ban on the use of force and threats of force between the member states of the Union;
- non-interference of member states in the internal affairs of other states;
- the right of the Union to intervene in the affairs of the Union state by decision of the Organization’s Assembly in the event of war crimes , genocide and crimes against humanity
- peaceful coexistence of member states and their right to exist in peace and security;
- the right of member states to ask the organization to intervene in the affairs of the state in order to restore peace and security;
- promoting self-reliance within the Union;
- promoting gender equality ;
- respect for democratic principles, human rights, the rule of law and good governance;
- promoting social justice in order to ensure balanced economic development;
- respect for the integrity of human life, condemnation and denial of impunity and political killings , acts of terrorism and subversive activities;
- condemnation and rejection of an unconstitutional change of government.
The supreme body of the African Union is the Assembly , which consists of heads of state and government or their accredited representatives. Meetings of the Assembly in the form of a regular meeting should be held at least once a year. At the same time, at the request of any member state and with the approval of 2/3 of the member states, the Assembly may meet in extraordinary session. The Assembly is headed by a Chairperson who is elected for a one-year term by Member States from among the heads of state or government. The Assembly has a fairly broad mandate. She:
- defines the general policies of the African Union;
- Adopts, considers and makes decisions on various reports and recommendations prepared by other bodies of the Union;
- considers the issue of membership in the organization;
- establishes new bodies of the Union;
- exercises control over the implementation of the policies and decisions of the Union, and also monitors their compliance by member states;
- adopts the budget of the Union;
- Provides guidance to the Executive Council on the management of conflicts, wars and other emergencies and the restoration of peace;
- appoints and removes judges of the Supreme Court of the African Union;
- appoints the chairman of the Commission and his deputies, the commissioner of the Commission, and also determines their tasks and the term of office.
Decisions in the Assembly are taken by consensus or, otherwise, by 2/3 of the votes of the member states of the organization. Nevertheless, procedural issues are resolved by a simple majority vote.
In order to strengthen further integration processes, especially economic ones, the Pan-African Parliament was created in 2004 , which should eventually become the highest legislative body of the African Union. It is located in the city of Midrand in South Africa and consists of 265 representatives from 53 member states of the organization.
The Executive Union (IP) of the African Union consists of ministers of foreign affairs or other ministers / civil servants appointed by the governments of the member states. IP meetings in the form of a regular meeting are held at least twice a year. At the same time, at the request of any Member State and with the approval of 2/3 of the Member States, IP can meet in extraordinary session. IP is responsible for coordination and decision-making on issues affecting the common interests of Member States, monitors the implementation of the political strategy formulated by the Assembly, and is accountable to it. The scope and activities of IP include:
- foreign trade ;
- energy , industry and natural resources;
- food, agricultural and animal resources, livestock and forestry;
- water and irrigation ;
- environmental protection, humanitarian action and emergency response;
- transport and communications;
- education, culture, health and labor development;
- science and technology;
- citizenship, residence and immigration issues;
- social security, including the formulation of policies to protect motherhood and children, as well as persons with disabilities and persons with disabilities;
- the establishment of a system of African prizes, medals and prizes.
Decisions in the IP, as in the Assembly, are taken by consensus or, otherwise, by 2/3 of the votes of the member states of the organization. Nevertheless, procedural issues are resolved by a simple majority vote.
In addition, there are specialized technical committees that are responsible to the Executive Committee:
- Committee of Agriculture and Agricultural Affairs;
- Currency and financial affairs committee;
- Committee for Trade, Customs and Immigration;
- Committee of Industry, Science and Technology, Energy, Natural Resources and the Environment;
- Committee for Transport, Communications and Tourism;
- Health, Labor and Social Affairs Committee;
- Education, Culture and Human Resources Committee.
There are other bodies within the African Union:
- Supreme Court;
- African Union Commission (the executive body of the organization acting as the secretariat of the African Union);
- Committee of Permanent Representatives;
- Economic, social and cultural council;
- Peace and Security Council.
In addition, it is planned to create three financial institutions: the African Central Bank (planned to be created by 2028 ), the African Monetary Fund , and the African Investment Bank .
On March 6, 2015, the African Union approved the creation of a regional group of troops of at least 8 thousand troops to counter the Islamists   .
Membership suspended Membership terminated
of the population
|Algeria||May 25, 1963||33 769 669||2 381 741||Algeria|
|Angola||February 11, 1975||16 941 000||246 700||Luanda|
|Benin||May 25, 1963||6 769 914||112 622||Porto Novo||Until 1975 - Dahomey .|
|Botswana||October 31, 1966||639 833||600 370||Gaborone|
|Burkina Faso ||May 25, 1963||13 228 000||274 000||Ouagadougou||Until 1984 - Upper Volta . Membership temporarily suspended from September 18, 2015 - after the military|
coup in the country.
|Burundi||May 25, 1963||3 589 434||27 830||Bujumbura|
|Gabon||May 25, 1963||1 454 867||267 745||Libreville|
|Gambia||October 1965||1 700 000||10 380||Banjul|
|Ghana||May 25, 1963||23 000 000||238 535||Accra|
|Guinea||May 25, 1963||10 211 437||245 857||Conakry||Membership was suspended on October 23, 2008 after a military coup,|
restored at the end of 2010 - after the presidential election,
Held on June 27 and November 7, 2010 .
|Guinea bissau||November 19, 1973||1 586 000||36 544||Bissau||Membership is temporarily suspended from April 17, 2012 - after a coup in the country.|
It was restored on June 18, 2014 - after the normalization of the political situation in the country.
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||May 25, 1963||62 600 000||2 344 858||Kinshasa||Since 1971 pl. 1997 - Republic of Zaire .|
After Morocco left the organization in 1984 in response to adoption
in 1982 in the OAU of the Sahara Arab Democratic Republic ,
Zaire, as an ally of Morocco, also opposed the support of SADR,
and the Mobutu regime boycotted the OAU from 1984 to 1986 .
|Djibouti||June 27, 1977||496 374||23 200||Djibouti|
|Egypt ||May 25, 1963||75 500 662||1 002 450||Cairo||Membership temporarily suspended from July 5, 2013 - after the removal of President Mursi|
military from office. Restored on June 18, 2014 - after the improvement of the political situation in the country.
|Zambia||December 16, 1964||11 668 000||752 618||Lusaka|
|Western Sahara ||February 22, 1982||267 405||266 000||El Aaiun (formally),|
Tifarity (in fact)
|The Sahara Arab Democratic Republic is recognized by 84 states of the world,|
but not recognized by all members of the African Union.
Most of the territory of Western Sahara is under the control of Morocco .
|Zimbabwe||June 1980||13 349 000||390 757||Harare|
|Cape Verde||July 18, 1975||503 000. 503 000||4033||Praia|
|Cameroon||May 25, 1963||17 795 000||475 442||Yaounde|
|Kenya||December 13, 1963||37 953 840||580 367||Nairobi|
|Comoros||July 18, 1975||798 000||2235||Moroni|
|Republic of the Congo||May 25, 1963||3 999 000||342 000||Brazzaville|
|Cote d'Ivoire||May 25, 1963||18 373 060||322 460||Yamoussoukro||Until 1986 - Ivory Coast .|
The country's membership has been suspended since the end of 2010
- after the failure of the loser, the 2nd round of the presidential election (held on November 28, 2010 )
President Laurent Gbagbo to cede his post to the winning candidate - Alassan Ouattara ,
whom the UN and the AU recognized as the current president of the country;
after the arrest of Gbagbo on April 11, 2011 and the actual assumption of power by Ouattara,
the country's membership in the AU was restored.
|Lesotho||October 31, 1966||795 000||30 355||Maseru|
|Liberia||May 25, 1963||3 489 072||111 369||Монровия|
|Libya||25 мая 1963 года||6 173 579||1 759 541||Триполи|
|Mauritius||август 1968 года||1 264 866||2040||Порт-Луи|
|Мавритания||25 мая 1963 года||3 069 000||1 030 700||Нуакшот||Членство было приостановлено с 4 августа 2005 года после военного переворота,|
восстановлено сразу после президентских выборов, состоявшихся 11 марта 2007 года ,
но вновь приостанавливалось с 6 августа 2008 года после нового военного переворота
и было восстановлено после очередных президентских выборов, которые состоялись 18 июля 2009 года .
|Madagascar||25 мая 1963 года||20 042 551||587 041||Антананариву||Членство впервые временно приостановлено с декабря 2001 года по 10 июля 2003 года ;|
во второй раз — с 20 марта 2009 года — после политического кризиса в стране,
27 января 2014 года после вступления в должность
нового демократически избранного президента, членство было восстановлено.
|Малави||13 июля 1964 года||13 931 831||118 484||Лилонгве|
|Мали ||25 мая 1963 года||11 995 402||1 240 192||Бамако||Членство временно приостанавливалось с 23 марта по 24 октября 2012 года — из-за государственного|
переворота в стране.
|Morocco||25 мая 1963 года||31 352 000||446 550||Рабат||Вышло из организации 12 ноября 1984 года в ответ на отказ исключить из ОАЕ принятую в 1982 году|
Сахарскую Арабскую Демократическую Республику , на территорию которой претендует (и контролирует) Марокко.
В 2017 году было вновь принято в состав организации. [fifteen]
|Мозамбик||18 июля 1975 года||21 397 000||801 590||Мапуту|
|Namibia||июнь 1990 года||2 088 669||825 418||Виндхук|
|Нигер||25 мая 1963 года||13 272 679||1 267 000||Ниамей||Членство было приостановлено после военного переворота 18 февраля 2010 года ,|
восстановлено в 16 марта 2011 года — после проведения президентских выборов.
|Nigeria||25 мая 1963 года||154 729 000||923 768||Abuja|
|Rwanda||May 25, 1963||10 186 063||26 798||Kigali|
|Sao Tome and Principe||July 18, 1975||157 000||964||Sao tome|
|Seychelles||June 29, 1976||82 247||451||Victoria|
|Senegal||May 25, 1963||11 658 000||196 723||Dakar|
|Somalia||May 25, 1963||558 666||637 661||Mogadishu|
|Sudan||May 25, 1963||30 894 000||1 886 068||Khartoum||Membership has been suspended since June 6, 2019 after the Khartoum massacre ,|
hosted by the Transitional Military Council .
|Sierra leone||May 25, 1963||6 294 774||71 740||Freetown|
|Tanzania||January 16, 1964||40,000,000||945 203||Dodoma||From May 25, 1963 to April 26, 1964 she was represented by Tanganyika and Zanzibar ;|
April 26, 1964, both states united under the name
United Republic of Tanganyiki and Zanzibar,
which on November 1, 1964 was renamed to Tanzania.
|Togo||May 25, 1963||6 585 000||56 785||Lome||Membership has been suspended since February 25, 2005.|
after doubts about the constitutionality of a presidential appointment,
after the presidential elections held with obvious fraud on May 4, 2005 ,
Togo's membership has been reinstated.
|Tunisia||May 25, 1963||10 327 800||163 610||Tunisia|
|Uganda||May 25, 1963||241 038||Kampala|
|Central African Republic ||May 25, 1963||4 216 666||622 984||Bangui||Membership is temporarily suspended from March 25, 2013 - after a coup in the country,|
however, the self-proclaimed president promised to hold democratic elections in the country within 3 years.
|Chad||May 25, 1963||10 780 600||284 000||N'Djamena|
|Equatorial Guinea||October 12, 1968||504 000. 504 000||28 051||Malabo|
|Eritrea||May 24, 1993||4 401 009||117 600||Asmara||Eritrea’s membership was effectively suspended as a result of the recall of “its ambassadors to the AU”|
November 20, 2009 after the AU appealed to the UN Security Council with a request to impose sanctions
to Eritrea in response to the alleged support of the last Somali Islamists,
trying to overthrow the universally recognized legitimate government of Somalia, a member of the AU.
On December 22, 2009, the UN Security Council adopted a resolution that introduced an arms embargo from Eritrea,
the travel ban for Eritrean leaders and allowed the accounts of Eritrean officials to be frozen
Eritrea has severely criticized this resolution.
Only in January 2011, the membership of Eritrea in the AU was restored  .
|Esvatini||September 24, 1968||1 141 000||17 364||Mbabane||Until 2018 - Swaziland.|
|Ethiopia||May 25, 1963||90 076 012||104 104||Addis Ababa|
|Republic of South Africa||June 6, 1994||1 221 037||Pretoria|
|South Sudan||July 28, 2011||8 260 490||619 745||Juba|
|General||-||965 717 471||30 334 914||-|
Turkey since 2005  .
Armenia since 2010  .
Serbia since 2011  .
Azerbaijan since 2011  .
Georgia since 2011  .
Latvia since 2012  .
Since February 2, 2012, Haiti has observer status, and at the AU summit in July 2012 it should have become a full member of the organization   , but this did not happen and in July 2016, Haiti was officially denied the opportunity to join the African Union 
Kazakhstan since 2013  .
Palestine since 2013  .
Ukraine since 2016  .
(In the past, Israel was an observer of the African Union, but was removed from it. In July 2016, when Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu visited Africa, he also arrived in Kenya. During this visit, the President of Kenya announced that he would act to return Israel as AU observer, Israeli Prime Minister responded positively.)
- African Development Bank
- European Union
- Community of Latin America and the Caribbean
- Emblem of the african union
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- African Union Languages
- African Union. Member states
- Constitutive Act / African Union
- According to the amendment to the Constituent Act, which has not yet entered into force, the working languages will be replaced by the official Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Swahili, and “other African” 
- Launch of the African Union, July 9, 2002: Address by the chairperson of the AU, President Thabo Mbeki . African Union. Date of treatment January 21, 2010. Archived March 4, 2012.
- AU summit extended amid divisions . BBC (February 4, 2009). Date of treatment January 21, 2010. Archived March 4, 2012.
- Reynolds, Paul African Union replaces dictators' club . Air Force (July 8, 2002). Date of treatment January 21, 2010. Archived March 4, 2012.
- CNN, Kieron Monks, for African Union launches all-Africa passport . CNN Date of treatment July 17, 2016.
- President Kenyatta arrives in Kigali for AU summit (link not available) . rwandaeye.com . Date of treatment July 17, 2016. Archived July 17, 2016.
- Niger and Chad launch an operation against Islamists in Nigeria
- African Union Supports Regional Armed Forces to Combat Boko Haram
- African Union suspends Burkina Faso membership in organization
- African Union suspends Egypt's membership
- The African Union includes the Sahara Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), claiming the entire territory of Western Sahara . SADR is recognized by 84 UN member states , at the time of admission it was recognized by most members of the African Union, but controls only part of the territory of Western Sahara, while most of the territory is controlled by Morocco .
- Le Mali est réintégré au sein de l'Union africaine
- Most African Union countries supported Morocco's return to the organization
- African Union suspends Central African Republic after coup
- Eritrea: Nation Appoints AU Envoy in Ethiopia (January 20, 2011). Date of treatment May 9, 2011.
- News from the Turkish Foreign Ministry Archived on January 30, 2014.
- Armenia has appointed its representative in the African Union | Armenian News - NEWS.am
- Serbian FM urges African Union support
- Azerbaijan received observer status in the African Union (PHOTO) | Politics | Trend
- Georgia became an observer in the African Union - News - GeorgiaTimes.info
- Latvia becomes observer to African Union
- Haiti - Diplomacy: Haiti becomes a member of the African Union
- HAÏTI. Bienvenue dans l'Union africaine!
- Press Releases | African union
- Kazakhstan was granted an observer status in the African Union (unavailable link) . Date of treatment December 16, 2013. Archived August 31, 2013.
- AU grants Palestine observer status
- Ukraine received observer status