Sacred geometry (from the Latin. Sacralis - sacred, possessing holiness, recognized as divine) - a set of religious and / or mythological ideas about the forms and space of the world , its harmony , orderliness, proportionality , as the geometry of the forms underlying life.
Sacred geometry is part of the mythological and religious worldview , the result of mystical experience . Sacred geometry has been used at all times and in all world religions, in music, art, in the architecture of temples and altars, in painting and iconography - as divine proportionality, in the geometric interpretation of the cosmos - as a form of orderliness of the Universe (as opposed to chaos ).
Sacred Geometry of Ancient Egypt
The most significant sacred geometric figure of the ancient Egyptians is the ankh х (anq, ankh) - a symbol of life in ancient Egypt . It contains two figures: a cross as a symbol of life and a circle as a symbol of eternity. All together it is understood as immortality or "forthcoming life". Sometimes this form is represented as the rising sun, as a unity of opposites, as a male and female principle (Wed lingam and yoni ). Ankh is presented as a magical symbol of wisdom. It can be found in many images of deities and clergymen of the times of the Egyptian pharaohs. Many Egyptian gods were depicted with an ankh in his hand. It is assumed that the Ankh is one of the forms of the Tree of Life . Oval means eternity or the cycle of life, and the cross-shaped expansion, is understood as a transition from infinity to space. The drawings of the gods are also geometric forms, but more complex. To reproduce drawings, in painting, you need to know the geometry, mathematics, take into account the proportions, as shown in the work of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci .
Sacred Geometry of Tantra
Sacred geometry is used in Tantra to create yantras , which consist of geometric figures, where each of them has a certain semantic and sacred meaning. For example, the Triangle, pointing upwards means fire and masculine, and pointing downwards - water and feminine.
The combination of these figures forms a six-pointed star ✡ and means a static equilibrium, or balance, between Man and God.
In another tradition, the hexogram ✡ is the star of David and can be viewed as a projection of the Merkava on the plane. [one]
۞ - means the balance of static and dynamic. The sacred geometry of the yantras symbolically depicts the energy structures of the deities and at the same time is the guardian of their energy . Yantras are used as magical devices that engender the soul  . In Tantra, more complex geometric shapes are used, such as drawings or figurines of gods .
The sacred geometry of Mandala , used during meditations in Buddhism and Hinduism , represents in the most part the divine geometric interpretation of the cosmos, the entire universe, or its individual components. The important sacred geometric symbol (Mandala) is the Wheel of Law (Dharma) , which is traditionally depicted as a wheel with five, six or eight spokes. The wheel of Dharma symbolizes the laws of karma and reincarnation - the endless and uninterrupted circulation of birth, death and the new birth of a person.
There are also complex spatial mandalas in the form of sculptural decoration of the Temples or the architecture of the Temples themselves  .
Sacred Geometry of Christianity
The most important for Christianity is the geometric shape of the cross , one of the most ancient sacred symbols. There is a large variety of shapes and sizes, for example, the Maltese Cross , the Celtic Cross - a symbol of ancient Celtic Christianity . Think [ who? ] that he has more ancient pagan roots. There are numerous examples of the image of the cross and the circle, which some sources [ what? ] called "solar crosses."
Another quite important figure of the sacred geometry of Christianity can be considered a star . One of the variations of this figure can be found in the Old Testament .
It is believed that this sign is reflected in the print of Solomon , received from his father ( Star of David ). According to another version, the seal of King Solomon , is an image of an eight-pointed star ۞ . This sacred eight-pointed geometrical figure is depicted on the clothes of Christian priests, on some icons ( Neopalimaya Kupina ), in the form of spiritual insignia, orders and amulets .
The sacred geometry of the Star of Bethlehem has fourteen rays.
Sacred Geometry and Sacred Temples Architecture
Sacred geometry is reflected in the architecture of temples. It is difficult to overestimate the cultural significance of the ancient pyramids of Egypt, Mexico, India and Peru. So in our time, many refer [ who? ] on the sacral meaning of the golden section and the proportions of the pyramids of ancient Egypt .
One of the twenty sacred geometric figures of the calendar created by the Mayan civilization , even before Columbus discovered America , 18 (Etz'nab) symbolizes the cosmic driving force ( energy ) and has one of the meanings, as two pyramids connected by the magic wheel [4 ]  .
Samanid Mausoleum in Bukhara
The architectural appearance of the mausoleum is determined solely by the ancient traditions of perception of the surrounding world and has a distinctly sacred meaning. .
In the Northern Hemisphere , man initially identified four directions that determined his location in space and helped him orient himself in everyday life.
East and West are places where the Sun rises and where it goes. The polar star is the only "fixed" star, indicating the direction of the North at night. In the afternoon, the South - North direction is easily determined by the shortest shadow from the Sun at noon . The sun at noon is observed exactly in the South, the sun shadow from any object points exactly to the North .
Early in discovering “four” fixed points of space, man perceived the world as a square plane with “four” corners and “four” horizons . The night sky was represented by a dome-hemisphere. Thus, in the ancient cultural tradition of Buddhism, the Earth is represented as Cuba .
Thus, the Islamic Mausoleum of the Samanids - a cube covered with a dome-hemisphere, is a visible embodiment and a reduced Model of the World. This defines the architectural canons of a certain culture at a certain historical time.
New Age Sacred Geometry of Culture
The sacred geometry of the New Age and Occult cultures can be divided into several directions. Many use the sacral forms of world religions (the cross, the ankh, the star of David) or simply copy the sacred geometry of ancient or rare, forgotten magical forms. More rarely, additions are made that can be obtained through the use of new materials and technologies, for example, the ankh model of the chakra system.
Such forms as glass magic balls and pyramids are most widely used. Less commonly, they use forms in the form of a torus , a "golden spiral", the forms of Plato's 5 bodies of a 4-dimensional cube, or merkaba (2 oppositely directed and deeply penetrating one tetrahedron). Crystals in the form of bipyramids or pyramid- shaped structures are also used.
Some proponents of sacred geometry see significance in crop circles , Nazca inscriptions, ancient architecture of sacral structures, such as the pyramids of Egypt, Mexico, or Stonehenge in England.
- Hexagram (I Ching)
- Eye of Ra
- The Tree of Life (Kabbalah)
- Star of David
- Vitruvian Man
- Tarot cards
- Egyptian Taro
- Hexagram (symbol)
- Feng Shui
- Flower of life (geometry)
- Right polyhedron (Platonic solids)
- Archimedean body (semi-regular polyhedra)
- Vesica piscis
- Pi (number)
- Golden ratio ( Fibonacci numbers )
- Figured numbers
- Metatron Cube
- Vector equilibrium
- SCHOOL - G - Sacred Geometry
- Johari, Harish Tools for Tantra. Chakras: energy centers of transformation / Trans. from English K. Semenov. - M .: Publishing House "Helios", 2001. - 264 p. - ISBN 5-344-00027-8
- Miller, Mary; and KARL TAUBE (1993). The Mesaamerican Religion Dictionary of Mesaamerican Religion . London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05068-6 .
- Hoffman, O. R. "Journey to the ancient sages: Maya magic. St. Petersburg: Nevsky Prospect, 2004, ISBN 5-94371-460-X