Andre Antoine ( fr. André Antoine , 1858-1943) - French theater and film director, theater theorist  . The largest representative of " theatrical naturalism ", the creator and director of the " Free Theater " and the "Theater of Antoine" , the educator of a galaxy of talented actors.
|Date of Birth|
|Place of Birth||Limoges , France|
|Date of death||October 9, 1943|
|Place of death||Puligan ( Loire-Atlantique ), France|
Andre Antoine was born on January 31, 1858 in the city of Limoges  . He graduated from the prestigious Lyceum of Condorcet .
He worked as a clerk at the Gas Society in Paris  .
Only a few filmmakers of those days felt the specifics of cinema as sharply as Antoine. Already in his first production of “The Corsican Brothers,” he refused to consider the cinematic frame as a kind of theater scene. Having put an imaginary “fourth” wall between the audience and the actors, he demanded that the actors drown out the familiar feeling of the theater stage and refuse the excessive expression of gestures and facial expressions characteristic of the theater.
Rich experience in the theater and a penchant for experimenting were very useful to Antoine in working on the production of films. The artist’s instinct opened up new possibilities for the expressive language of cinema. He used the movement of the camera, invented new methods of constructing a staging scene, adapting them to the conditions of filming, finally breaking up the episodes into separate scenes and plans, intuitively comprehended the laws of editing.
Mastering the specifics of cinema, Antoine did not abuse the techniques found and very tactfully used them, not making them an end in itself, as was observed by A. Hans .
Attention to the lives of ordinary people, the desire to deeply reveal the characters and make wide use of the possibilities of realistic transmission of nature favorably distinguished Antoine's films from the then-salon salon melodramas and serial detectives. Unfortunately, moviegoers did not appreciate the strict simplicity of his films. They reacted blankly to his experiences. The reaction of the audience alerted the owners of the film studios. In their opinion, the bet on Antoine's talent did not justify itself, and his work in the cinema stopped.
However, the lessons of Antoine were not in vain: in the later works of J. Fader , L. Poirier , R. Budriose and Jacques de Baronselli, you can find the influence of his creative installations.
Possessing seething energy and great determination, Antoine became a supporter of naturalism , and more than anyone else in the French theater was engaged in propagating Zola's ideological views and staging performances based on his works  .
In 1887 - founded the experimental in Paris - and the first in the history of the so-called “Free” - “ Theater Libre ” ( “Théâtre Libre” ), which is directed until 1894  . During this time, 124 plays, French and foreign, including 67 newly written, were staged.
In the “Free Theater” were staged, in particular, and “ The Power of Darkness ” by L. N. Tolstoy ( 1888 ), “Ghosts” ( 1890 ) and “The Wild Duck” ( 1891 ) Ibsen , “The Freeloader” by I. S. Turgenev ( 1890 ), “ Weavers ” by G. Hauptmann ( 1893 ).
Theater of Antoine
In 1897 he created the “Theater of Antoine” ( Théâtre Antoine ) and directed it until 1906 .
1906 - 1913 - directs the Odeon Theater ( Théâtre de l'Odéon ) in Paris. In his theater, there are staged novels by Balzac , Alfons Daudet , Jules Renard ( "Ginger" ).
- 1888 - The Power of Darkness by L. N. Tolstoy 
- 1890 - The Ghosts of G. Ibsen
- 1890 - The "Freeloader" by I. S. Turgenev
- 1891 - The Wild Duck by G. Ibsen
From 1914 to 1922 he shot nine paintings commissioned by the Society of Authors and Writers and Paté .
His first work was The Corsican Brothers . The romantically raised topic was borrowed from the work of the same name by A. Dumas .
A. Antoine drew the main attention to a deep characterization of the characters and managed to convey in the film the sharp dynamism of the action, characteristic of a literary source.
The first successful work was followed by new adaptations - “Guilty” by Koppa , “Workers of the Sea” by Hugo , “Earth” by Zola.
1922 - leaves directing and is engaged in film criticism in the journal Le Journal ( French Journal ).
- 1914 - 1793 / together with Albert Capellani the film "1793", released by French censorship on the screen only in 1921
- 1916 - Corsican Brothers
- 1918 - Workers of the Sea
- 1917 - Guilty
- 1919 - Israel
- 1920 - Swallow and Tit
- 1921 - Earth
- 1921 - Mademoiselle de la Seglier
- 1922 - Arlesian
- V. Komarov . The history of foreign cinema. Volume 1. A silent movie . - M.: “Art”, 1965.
- Internet Movie Database
- BNF ID : Open Data Platform
- Big Russian Encyclopedia: 30 tons / Chairman scientific-ed. Council Yu. S. Osipov. Repl. Ed. S. L. Kravets. T. 2. Ankylosis - Bank. - M.: Big Russian Encyclopedia, 2005 .-- 766 p.: Ill .: maps.
- Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Ch. ed. A.M. Prokhorov, 3rd ed. T. 2. Angola - Barzas. 1970.632 p., Ill .: 47 p. ill. and cards. (p. 111)
- Antoine, Andre // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- “ Free Theater ” - “100 Great Theaters of the World”
- “ Theater of Antoine ” - “100 Great Theaters of the World”
- " Odeon " - "100 Great Theaters of the World"
- Andre Antoine on the Internet Movie Database