|Shoulder straps of lower ranks " Sailor " , " Private "|
Russian imperial army and navy
Pogony - shoulder-strap insignia of a professional or similar corporation on uniform (corporate) clothes to denote a wide variety of corporate signs and differences :
- ranks ;
- personal ranks ( military and special );
- class officials ;
- belonging to a certain ministry , department , organization or service (including the type of armed forces , special forces , and the like).
An alternative to shoulder straps is the placement of insignia on the collar ( buttonholes ), on the sleeve ( sleeve signs ) and the like.
Typical shoulder straps are worn on the shoulders of a more or less rectangular shape of the product with one way or another indicated on them ( strips , gaps , asterisks and chevrons ) rank, position, official affiliation of the shoulder strap holder.
Shoulder straps are used in almost all countries to denote the most diverse corporate features and differences in the armed forces , law enforcement agencies and the like, paramilitary groups and organizations , as well as in ministries, departments and organizations that provide for wearing corporate uniforms and corresponding insignia.
Currently, in the Russian Federation (as well as in some other countries), in addition to the personnel of the Armed Forces, epaulets are worn by police ( police ), prosecutors, tax and environmental services (inspections), and transport workers (mainly railway, sea, river, civil aviation) ), departmental security and some other organizations.
Epaulettes are close to epaulets , characterized in that, if the epaulette is mainly rectangular in shape and usually has one end firmly fixed to the shoulder seam, and the second is fastened with a button at the collar, the epaulet has the shape of a circle or oval (usually with a fringe) at the shoulder end and a rectangular valve threaded under a special counter-chase and fastened with a button at the collar.
There is a hypothesis that the prototype of epaulettes and epaulettes can be considered metal shoulder pads of knightly armor , which protected the shoulders from chopping blows with melee weapons and could carry emblems. This opinion is disputed by some researchers who deny the very existence of anything “even closely resembling“ protective shoulder plates “” .  Indeed, not all knightly armor had the indicated details, however, the images below show samples of the coat of arms of the knightly armor:
The initial applied value of the epaulette is to keep the waist belt from slipping, the bandage (belt) of the cartridge bag , satchel strap, to protect the uniform from abrasions from the gun in the “on the shoulder” position. In this case there could be only one shoulder strap - on the left (the cartridge bag was worn on the right side, the gun on the left shoulder). The sailors did not carry an ammunition bag, and for this reason in most fleets of the world shoulder straps are not used, and the position or rank is indicated by stripes on the sleeve.
Nowadays, as a rule, rigid shoulder-straps with bright stars and badges are worn with a full dress, while the more modest cloth epaulets without sewing are used in the field, often in the color of camouflage .
In the Russian Empire
In Russia, epaulettes appeared on military clothing under Peter I between 1683 and 1699. At first, they were only soldier uniforms. The officers did not have shoulder straps, since they did not carry guns and bags.
To use epaulettes as a means of distinguishing military personnel of one regiment from another began in 1762 , when each regiment was equipped with epaulets of various weaving from a sail cord. At the same time, an attempt was made to make epaulettes a means of distinguishing soldiers and officers, for which, in the same regiment, officers and soldiers weaving epaulettes was different. There were no uniform shoulder straps; therefore, they performed the function of the insignia badly.
Under Emperor Paul I, only soldiers again began to wear epaulettes, and only for a utilitarian purpose: to keep ammunition on their shoulders.
The function of the insignia of shoulder straps was returned by Alexander I at the beginning of the 19th century (however, not in all military branches). In the infantry shoulder straps were introduced on both shoulders, in the cavalry - only on the left. Color epaulettes meant belonging to a regiment or battalion. Officer epaulets were trimmed with gold or silver galloon. In 1803, epaulettes were introduced for officers, which, thanks to weaving from the gimp and their massiveness, could protect the shoulders from chopping blows with melee weapons.
Since 1843, epaulettes have become a sign of the distinction of military ranks, at first only among soldiers and non-commissioned officers . From 1854, epaulettes were gradually introduced instead of epaulettes for officers: initially only for an overcoat, and in March 1855 for other types of clothing. Enciphers (abbreviated name of the military unit), emblems of the kind of weapon, monogram of the chief of the regiment are also applied to epaulettes. Shoulder straps for military officials are also being introduced. They were narrower than officers, stars on them were drawn in a vertical row, another was a drawing of a galun.
From November 30, 1855, Russian officer epaulets were hexagonal, and soldiers' epaulets were pentagonal. Officer epaulettes were made manually: pieces of a harness or headquarters officer galloon were sewn onto a colored base, from which a field of epaulettes shone through (hence the "gaps" - colored tracks on officer epaulets). The galun was of gold and (less often) silver colors, the stars were sewn, silver on the golden pursuit, gold and silver on the same size (11 mm in diameter) for all officers and generals (the epaulettes of the captain, colonel and full general did not have any stars). The color of the clearance meant the number of the regiment in the division or the type of army: red - the 1st and 2nd regiments in the division, blue - the 3rd and 4th regiments in the division, yellow - the grenadier units, raspberry - infantry, etc. The design of general embroidery was borrowed from the insignia of the generals of the Austro-Hungarian army.
In 1914, with the outbreak of World War I , the monograms of “enemy” chiefs on Russian uniforms (emperors of Germany and Austria-Hungary, the king of Bulgaria) were canceled. On October 20, 1914, in addition to gold and silver, field epaulets for the army were introduced for the first time. Their field was khaki , the stars on them were metal oxidized, the gaps were indicated by dark brown or yellow moleskin stripes. In the army, such epaulets were not popular, as the officers considered them ugly and faded. As a result, by the years 1916-1917, cases of wearing galloon epaulettes on the field uniform were increasingly encountered, and some regiments from the principle did not use field epaulets. At the same time, in the rear districts, on the contrary, frequent wearing of field epaulets was noted.
After the February Revolution in April 1917, the monograms of the Augusting family on shoulder straps were canceled.
In the summer of 1917, black shoulder straps with white gaps were introduced in some shock parts of the Russian army .
After the October Revolution
After the October Revolution in the army of Soviet Russia, epaulettes were canceled on December 16, 1917  .
In white armies epaulettes, as a rule, persisted.
However, in some armies that fought on the side of the White Movement, epaulettes were also canceled, and sleeve insignia were introduced instead of them, for example, in the People’s Army of Komuch and the Siberian Army of the Provisional Siberian Government . True, there were similar sleeve insignia for a rather short time. So, just a month after their introduction, epaulets were reintroduced in the Siberian army. At the same time, the commander of the 1st Central Siberian Army Corps Lieutenant Colonel A. N. Pepelyaev , “known for his democratic views, strictly followed the instructions and introduced in his units only protective epaulets, carefully avoiding the galloon and colored uniforms and striving to follow the traditions of the military uniform of the former army, the last in the Siberian army ”  .
Subsequently, in exile in the territory of Yugoslavia, Russian officers were allowed to wear military uniforms, and "old" epaulets were found there until 1944.
In Soviet propaganda, before the Great Patriotic War, epaulettes for many years became a symbol of counter-revolutionary officers (who were contemptuously called the "gold miners").
In the USSR
In the Armed Forces of the USSR to introduce epaulettes (only for military personnel of the guard units) was proposed in 1941. Nevertheless, epaulettes were introduced on January 6, 1943 for the personnel of the Red Army , and on February 15 for the personnel of the Navy . Epaulettes were introduced by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of January 6, 1943, which was declared in the Red Army by order of the USSR NCO No. 25 of January 15, 1943, and in the Navy by order of the NKVMF No. 51 of February 15, 1943  . In addition, on February 18, 1943 epaulettes were introduced in the NKVD and the NKGB, on May 28, 1943, in the People’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, on September 4, 1943, in the People’s Commissariat of Railways, and on October 8, 1943, in the USSR Prosecutor’s Office (in the last three departments epaulettes were canceled July 12, 1954).
For the Red Army, field and everyday epaulets were established.
Soviet epaulettes had much in common with pre-revolutionary ones, but there were differences: the officer epaulets of the Red Army (but not the Navy) of 1943 were pentagonal, not hexagonal; the colors of the gaps indicated the type of troops, not the regiment; the lumen of the everyday epaulet was a single unit with the epaulet field, the lumen of the field epaulet was sewn; on three sides (except the lower one) on the pursuit there were colored piping (edging) according to the color of the military branch; the stars were metal, gold or silver, and varied in size for junior and senior officers; ranks were designated by a different, in contrast to the pre-revolutionary, number of stars; epaulets without asterisks were not restored. Soviet officer epaulets were 5 mm wider than the pre-revolutionary ones. The encryption on them did not last long.
According to the assigned military rank and belonging to the military branch (service), insignia (asterisks and gaps) and emblems were placed on the shoulder straps. Epaulettes of junior officers had one clearance and from one to four silver-plated metal stars with a diameter of 13 mm, and epaulets of senior officers had two clearance and from one to three stars with a diameter of 20 mm. For military lawyers and medical officers - senior officers, there were "medium" stars with a diameter of 18 mm. Initially, the stars of senior officers were not mounted in the openings, but on the galun field next to them. Field epaulets had a protective color field (khaki cloth ) with one or two gaps sewn to it. Gaps were set for field epaulettes: Bordeaux - for infantry, artillery, armored forces, aviation, cavalry, engineering troops, brown - for physicians, quartermasters and lawyers. Edgings on field epaulettes were set for infantry and commandant service - crimson; artillery, armored forces, medical and veterinary services - red; aviation - blue; cavalry - light blue; Engineering Troops - Black.
The field of everyday epaulettes was made of golden silk or galun. For everyday epaulettes of engineering and commanding staff, lawyers, commissary, medical and veterinary services, a silver galun was approved. There was a rule according to which silver stars were worn on golden shoulder straps, and vice versa, gilded stars were worn on silver shoulder straps (except for veterinarians - they wore silver stars on silver shoulder straps).
The shoulder strap is 6 cm, and for officers of the medical and veterinary services and military justice - 4 cm. It is known that such shoulder straps in the troops were called "oak trees". The color of edgings and gaps was the same on everyday uniforms and depended on the type of troops and service — crimson in the infantry, blue in aviation, light blue in the cavalry, black in the engineering troops, and red in the presence of doctors. On all shoulder straps there was one uniform gilded button with a star, with a sickle and a hammer in the center, in the fleet - a silver button with an anchor.
The general epaulettes of the 1943 model, unlike the soldiers and officers, were hexagonal. They were golden with silver stars. The exception was the epaulettes of the generals of the medical and veterinary services and justice. Narrow silver epaulettes with gold stars were introduced for them.
Navy officer epaulets, unlike army epaulets, as well as pre-revolutionary ones, were hexagonal. Otherwise, they were similar to the army ones, but the color of the shoulder straps was determined as follows: for the officers of the naval, engineering-naval and coastal engineering services - black, for aviation and the engineering-aviation service - blue, quartermasters - raspberry, for all other fleet officers , including justice - red. On the shoulder straps of command and ship personnel, emblems were not worn.
The color of the field, the stars and the edging of the shoulder straps of the generals and admirals , as well as their width, were also determined by the type of army and service, the field of shoulder straps of the highest officers was made from a special braid weaving. The buttons of the Red Army generals had the image of the emblem of the USSR, and the admirals and generals of the Navy had the emblem of the USSR superimposed on 2 crossed anchors.
On November 7, 1944, the arrangement of stars on the shoulder straps of the colonels and lieutenant colonels of the Red Army was changed. Until that moment, they were located on the sides of the gaps, but now they have moved to the gaps themselves. On October 9, 1946, the uniform of the officers of the Soviet Army was changed - they became hexagonal.
By order of the Minister of the Armed Forces of the USSR No. 4 of 1947 on epaulettes of officers retired and resigned, a golden (for those who wore silver epaulets) or silver (for golden epaulettes) patch was introduced, which they must wear when they put on a military uniform (in 1955 this patch was canceled).
Major reform epaulettes in the Soviet Armed Forces took place in the following years:
- 1955. Introduced daily field bilateral shoulder straps for privates and sergeants.
- 1956. Field epaulettes for officers with stars and khaki emblems and gaps along the lines of service are introduced.
- 1957. The so-called "Zhukovsky reform" of shoulder straps is prepared. On September 23, 1957, by Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 1134 (announced by order of the USSR Ministry of Defense dated September 28, 1957 No. 185), a new uniform was introduced for servicemen of the Soviet Army and Navy, and shoulder straps of an unusual trapezoidal shape were installed that resembled shoulder straps of the army Czechoslovakia. However, on October 27, 1957, when G.K. Zhukov, the initiator of the innovation, Marshal of the Soviet Union, was removed from the post of Minister of Defense, the reform was curtailed. At that time, work on the introduction of insignia of the new sample was at the stage of manufacturing an experimental batch to clarify the technology and size of the patterns.
- 1958. Narrow epaulettes of the 1946 model for physicians, veterinarians and lawyers are abolished. On silver epaulets silver stars are introduced, on silver - gold stars. The colors of the gaps are red (combined arms, airborne), raspberry (engineering troops), black (tank troops, artillery, technical troops), blue (aviation), dark green (doctors, veterinarians, lawyers); blue (the color of the cavalry) was abolished in connection with the elimination of this kind of troops. Broad silver epaulettes with gold stars were introduced for generals of the medical, veterinary services and justice, while for others, gold epaulets with silver stars were introduced.
- 1962. The so-called "Khrushchev reform" is being prepared, which implies the abolition of shoulder straps in the Soviet Army (by analogy with the abolition of shoulder straps by railway workers, diplomats and prosecutors). The army was supposed to return to "Leninist norms," that is, to the buttonholes. However, the alleged buttonholes were not supposed to repeat the insignia of the 1930s. The implementation of this project met with strong opposition from the Ministry of Defense, due to which the reform was delayed, and after the elimination of N. S. Khrushchev in 1964 was curtailed.
- 1963. The epaulettes of the foreman ( midshipman ) of the 1943 model (with the "foreman's hammer") are abolished, epaulets with one longitudinal strip of wide galun are introduced instead of them (this figure was supposed for the unfulfilled reform of 1957)
- 1969. Gold stars are introduced on gold epaulets, on silver - silver. The colors of the gaps in the SA are red (ground forces), black (tank troops, artillery, etc., existed until 1971), raspberry (medical service, veterinary service, doctors, justice, administrative service) and blue (aviation, airborne forces). In the internal troops - speckled, in the KGB - cornflower. Silver general epaulettes are abolished. All general's epaulettes became gold, with gold stars framed by edging according to the type of troops.
- 1972. Shoulder straps for warrant officers and similar shoulder straps for warrant officers are introduced, with the location of two stars (the size set for junior officers) on the axial longitudinal line of the shoulder strap without gaps; the previous Michigan epaulette with a longitudinal strip of wide galun is established for the title of chief ship foreman .
- 1973. Letters are set (“SA” - the Soviet Army, “BB” - internal troops, “PV” - KGB border troops, “GB” - KGB troops) on shoulder straps of soldiers and sergeants, “K” - on shoulder straps of cadets and “F” "- for the Navy. Fleet buoys are located on shoulder straps and carters of sailors and foremen (“BF” - the Baltic Fleet, “SF” - the Northern Fleet, “TF” - the Pacific Fleet, “Black Sea Fleet” - the Black Sea Fleet).
- 1974. New shoulder straps of the army general are introduced to replace the 1943 shoulder strap.
- 1980. All silver epaulets with silver stars are abolished. The colors of the gaps are red (combined arms), blue (aviation, airborne forces), green (border troops), cornflower blue (KGB). New shoulder straps of the army general are introduced in exchange for the 1974 shoulder strap.
- 1981. Epaulettes of the senior warrant officer and senior warrant officer with three stars on the longitudinal axial line of the shoulder strap without clearance are introduced; size of stars - as for junior officers.
- 1986. For the first time in the history of Russian officer epaulettes epaulettes without gaps were introduced, differing only in the size of asterisks (sewn-on epaulettes to the field uniform “Afghan”).
- 1988. Introduced white shoulder straps for shirts of ceremonial summer uniforms.
In some countries, tags are used - special insignia in the form of metal stripes or corners ( chevrons ) sewn on or attached to wire fasteners on shoulder straps of younger employees, for example sergeants .
Leash is placed on the shoulder straps of military personnel and police officers (militia), cadets of military and paramilitary institutions, employees of the Russian Railways , the subway , etc.
В России первоначально были введены в 1843 году для определения чинов унтер-офицерского состава. Одну поперечную узкую лычку носил ефрейтор , две — младший унтер-офицер, три — старший унтер-офицер, одну широкую — фельдфебель, широкую продольную — подпрапорщик (чины указаны для пехоты).
В ВС СССР с 1943 года использовались шевроны для обозначения званий военнослужащих младшего командного и начальствующего состава. Шевроны были красного (для полевой) и золотистого либо серебристого (для повседневной и парадной форм одежды по видам войск) цветов. Впоследствии серебристые шевроны упразднили, но ввели жёлтые для повседневной формы. Для полевой формы предусматривались шевроны защитного цвета, так как золотистые или серебристые шевроны были хорошо видны издали и тем самым демаскировали военнослужащего.
Званию ефрейтора ( старшего матроса ) соответствовал один узкий шеврон, располагавшийся поперёк погона, званиям младшего сержанта и сержанта (старшины 2-й и 1-й статьи) — два и три узких шеврона соответственно, старшие сержанты ( главные старшины ) носили один широкий шеврон поперек погона, а старшины (до 1970-х годов в ВМФ — мичманы, затем — главные корабельные старшины) — один шеврон, располагавшийся вдоль погона по его оси (в 1943-63 гг. старшины носили так называемый «старшинский молоток» — широкий поперечный шеврон вверху погона, а в него снизу погона упирался продольный узкий шеврон). Курсанты имели также шевроны вдоль боковых и верхнего краёв погона, крепившегося на пуговицу, а с 1970-го года, после отмены погон, крепившихся на пуговицу — только вдоль внешнего края погон. У суворовцев шевроны на погонах имели только младшие командиры: вице-сержант — вдоль боковых и верхнего краёв погона, а старшему вице-сержанту добавлялся ещё один шеврон такой же ширины, располагавшийся вдоль погона по оси. У советских милиционеров сержантские звания обозначались алюминиевыми золотистого цвета полосками, заменявшими шевроны. Для старшин милиции изготавливались специальные тканые погоны, где продольный шеврон был вышит вместе с полем погона. С 1994 по 2010 годы в ВС РФ для этих целей использовались угольники из металла золотистого цвета или металла (пластика) серо-зелёного цвета (для полевой формы). Ефрейтору (старшему матросу) полагался один узкий угольник, младшему сержанту (старшине 2-й статьи) — два, сержанту (старшине 1-й статьи) — три узких угольника, старший сержант (главный старшина) носил один широкий угольник, а старшина (главный корабельный старшина) — сочетание узкого и широкого угольников. С 2010 года войска перешли на традиционные шевроны из галуна .
Германия, 1877 г. ( Отто фон Бисмарк )
Японский генерал С. Хаяси
Американский генерал У. Шорт
Русские офицерские погоны с вензелем ( Н. Бабиев , 1910-е гг.)
Французский генерал де Голль , около 1942 г.
Приказный Донского казачьего войска Козьма Крючков , 1914 год.
Наплечные накладки с лычками на форменной одежде руководящего состава ведомственной охраны Росжелдора
Историческая галерея погон зарубежных армий
Погон воинского звания «Лейтенант». Военный флот Болгарского княжества
Погоны некоторых частей Германской имперской армии периода 1-й мировой войны.
Погоны рядового состава некоторых частей Германской имперской армии до 1918 года.
Погоны и эполеты армии Королевства Пруссия до 1918 года.
Погон контр-адмирала ВМФ Италии
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- Шепелев Л. К. Титулы, мундиры, ордена. — Ленинград: Наука, 1991. — С. 216. — 224 с. - 40,000 copies. — ISBN 5-02027196-9 .
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- Сайт «Анатомия армии» (army.armor.kiev.ua) . Дата обращения 14 января 2012. , в том числе:
- Символ воинского достоинства и чести
- статья «Знаки различия» из 2-го издания БСЭ.
- Знаки различия военнослужащих — статья из Большой советской энциклопедии .
- International Encyclopedia of Insignia (eng.)