Tushemlinsky (Bancer) culture (Tushemlinsky-Bancer culture  ) is the East Baltic culture  of the Iron Age of the 4th – 7th centuries , located on the territory of central and northern Belarus , as well as the Smolensk region of Russia . The Tushemlin culture was distinguished by P.N. Tretyakov and E.A. Schmidt in the 1950s . In the 1960s, A. G. Mitrofanov concluded that the territory of middle and northern Belarus, together with the Smolensk region, constitutes a single cultural and archaeological massif.
|Geographic region||Middle and Northern Belarus, Smolensk region|
|Dating||III-VI century AD|
Smolensk region of Russia, as well as Vitebsk, Minsk ( Bancer settlement ) and Mogilev region of Belarus.
Directly preceded the resettlement of the Slavic- Krivichs in this territory  . Tushemlinsky antiquities were formed on the basis of the earlier Dnieper-Dvina culture and the culture of hatched ceramics as a result of crossbreeding with carriers of the Kiev culture .
The name comes from the Tushemlya River and located on its shore near the village of Mokryadino ( Pochinkovsky district of the Smolensk region ) of the city of the same name and from the Belarusian village of Bantserovshchina , located near Minsk .
In addition to the villages, the Tushemlites built shelter villages that were destroyed by fire at the end of their culture. Tushemlinskoe settlement is an oval area of about 800 m² in size, located on a cape bounded by two ravines. On the perimeter, it was protected by two earthen ramparts with wooden fences on top. Three shafts with the same log fence were arranged on the floor side. A long log structure with a gable overlap of 4-4.5 m wide, divided by partitions into seven or eight rooms, in the middle of some of them there were hearths lined with stones, adjoined the walls on the inner side of the settlement, the rest were used for household needs. Within the Tushemlino settlement at the end of the “courtyard” was a pagan sanctuary. In the center of the cape of the settlement there was a round platform with pillars along the edge and a large pillar in the center, presumably for the main idol  . The sanctuary belongs in the middle phase of the existence of the ancient settlement (III – IV centuries), in the upper cultural phase the sanctuary is absent  . The closest analogue of the sanctuaries within the settlement is the sanctuary described in the 10th century by Ibn Fadlan  .
Blacksmithing was developed. The settlements were engaged in the production of iron and the manufacture of tools from it. The Tushemlian tribes are characterized by numerous iron implements, crochet sickles of various shapes, narrow- blade axes , straight-back knives , a bit, three-bladed arrowheads, leaf-shaped spearheads, etc.  .
The population was engaged in agriculture and cattle breeding.
According to the latest data from comparative linguistics, East Great Russian dialects in the upper reaches of the Dnieper and Ugra (most compactly in the territory of the Moschinskaya culture) are included in the fourth accent group. According to the conclusions of linguists, “the dialects of this group, due to the purely archaic nature of their accent system, cannot be explained as a result of the secondary development of any of the known accentological systems, but should be considered as the earliest branch from the Proto-Slavic ; the ethnic group, the bearer of this dialect, apparently represents the earliest eastern colonization stream of the Slavs ”  .
- Bancer culture (inaccessible link)
- Tarasov I.M. The Balts in the migrations of the Great Migration. Part I. Galinda, p. 97.
- Schmidt E. A. About the Tushemlinsky culture of the IV — VII centuries in the Upper Dnieper and the Gulf
- On the history of city formation on the territory of Ancient Russia, VI - the first half of the XI century / M. A. Sagaidak (with the participation of V. V. Murashova , V. Ya. Petrukhin ) // History of Russian art: in 22 volumes; open ed. A.I. Komech . - M .: Sev. pilgrim, 2007. - T. 1: The Art of Kievan Rus. - S. 81-108.
- Tretyakov P.N. , Schmidt E.A. Ancient settlements of the Smolensk region.
- P.N. Tretyakov . Finno-Ugric peoples, Balts and Slavs on the Dnieper and Volga. M., L., "Science", 1966, p. 276.
- Sedin A.A. Early Medieval Monuments of the Mogilev Region and Modern Youth (Inaccessible link) . Date of treatment March 5, 2008. Archived November 23, 2007.
- Dybo V.A. , Zamyatina G.I. , Nikolaev S. L. Fundamentals of Slavic accentology . - M. , 1990 .-- S. 157-158.
- Mitrofanov A.G. The Iron Age of Middle Belarus (VII-VI centuries BC. - VIII century A.D. ). Mn., 1978.
- Mitrofanov A.G. Archaeological sites of the eastern Balts on the territory of Belarus during the Iron Age (VIII century B.C. - IX century A.D.) // From the ancient history of the Baltic peoples: (according to archeology and anthropology). Riga, 1980.
- Schmidt E.A. The Upper Dnieper and the Gulf in the 3rd – 7th centuries n e. Tushemlin Culture / Ed. ed. F.E. Modestov . - Smolensk: [b. and.] , 2003. - 295 p. - 200 copies. - ISBN 5-88018-336-X .