Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman ( ibid. சந்திரசேகர வெங்கடராமன் , English Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman ; November 7, 1888 - November 21, 1970 ) - Indian physicist , member of the , its founder and president (since 1934 ). He is the author of a pioneering work in the field of light scattering, which brought him the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics. He found that when light passes through a transparent material, part of the deflected light changes its wavelength and amplitude. This phenomenon, later known as Raman scattering, is the result of the Raman effect  . In 1954, the Government of India awarded him the highest civilian award of India, Bharat Ratna   .
|Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman|
|there. சந்திரசேகர வெங்கடராமன்|
|Date of Birth|
|Place of Birth||Tiruchirapalli , Tamil Nadu , British India|
|Date of death|
|Place of death||Bangalore , India|
|Place of work|
|Alma mater||University of Madras|
|Awards and prizes|
Matteucci Medal (1928)
C.V. Raman was born in a family of Brahmins in Tamil Nadu , his native language was Tamil . The father's name was Chandrasekar Ramanatan Iyer, and his mother was Parvati Ammal   . He was the second among ten children. His father, Ramanathan Chandrasekar, taught mathematics and physics at the college of Ms. A. V. Narasimha Rao, Visagapatam (then Visakapatnam) in Andhra Pradesh, and then at the Presidential College in Madras (now Chennai)   . Even in Ramana's early childhood, his family moved to the city of Vizagapatam, Uttar Pradesh . C. V. Raman himself was an uncle of the famous astrophysicist Subramanyan Chandrasekar , with whom he developed a rather complicated relationship.
He studied at the Anglo-Indian high school of St. Aloisia in the city of Vizagapatam. He graduated from Presidential College in Madras (where he studied in 1902 - 1906 ), where his father taught mathematics and physics  . At the University of Madras in 1904 he received the title of Bachelor of Science, and in 1907, at the age of 19 , he received the Master of Science (with honors)  . Due to poor health, he could not continue his education in Europe.
In 1906-1917 , he worked in the Department of Finance in Calcutta as an assistant chief accountant, while also doing research in the laboratory of the Calcutta branch of the Indian Association for the Advancement of Science. So, from childhood, who was fond of music Venkata Raman conducted a scientific study of Indian drums and stringed instruments, publishing about thirty articles in this area.
In 1917, Raman resigned from government service and took the newly created post of professor of physics at the University of Calcutta . At the same time, he continued his research at the Indian Association for the Advancement of Science, of which he became honorary secretary. Numerous talented students gathered around him. Raman called this period his "golden age."
In 1917-1933 - professor at the University of Calcutta . From 1933 he was a professor and from 1933-1937 he was the director of the Institute of Science in Bangalore , from 1948 he was the director of the Ramana Institute in Hebbal and a national professor of India.
Since 1907, he was married to the artist Loka Sundari Ammal (1892-1980)  , with whom he had two sons, one of whom became a famous radio physicist.
Contribution to Science
Works in optics, acoustics, molecular physics, crystal physics, colloid optics, electro- and magnetooptics, photoelectric effect, x-ray diffraction, magnetism, physiology of vision. He gave the theory of the Compton effect , investigated the diffraction of light by ultrasound, Brillouin scattering in liquids and solids.
Returning in 1921 from his first visit to Europe, where he participated in the Congress of British Universities in Oxford, Raman set out to explain the dark blue color of the sea and soon theoretically proved that it is determined by the scattering of light by water molecules, as the color of the sky is explained light scattering on air molecules.
In 1927, he discovered the anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility of benzene molecules. He studied colors and their perception. He tried to build a theory of color vision. In 1941-1956 he developed the theory of vibrations of the crystal lattice.
In 1928 , together with K. S. Krishnan discovered Raman scattering on liquids (independently of L. I. Mandelstam and G. S. Landsberg ) (Nobel Prize, 1930). This phenomenon was another proof of the quantum nature of light. Raman scattering laid the foundation for a whole direction in the spectroscopy of molecules and crystals - Raman spectroscopy - an effective method for studying the electronic structure of molecules. Ernest Rutherford announced the discovery in a 1929 appeal to the Royal Society of London.
In 1941 - 1956 he worked on the theory of vibrations of the crystal lattice.
He did a lot for the development of science in India, founded a number of scientific journals, and created a school of physicists.
Winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1930 ("for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named in his honor"). His Soviet colleagues, who made the same discovery in parallel, were not presented for the award. He became the first Nobel laureate in the field of science from Asia (before him, the Rabindranath Tagore received the Nobel Prize, but in the field of literature).
In 1954 he was awarded the highest civilian state award of India - Bharat Ratna . In addition, Raman received the title of knight from the British king, as well as an honorary doctorate from various universities (Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Benares, Dhaka, Mysore, Delhi, Freiburg, Glasgow and Paris) and a number of medals. Among them - the Matteucci gold medal of the Italian National Academy of Sciences (1928), the Hughes medal of the Royal Society of London (1930), the Franklin medal of the Franklin Institute (1941). He was awarded honorary degrees by universities.
Member of a number of academies of sciences and scientific societies (the Royal Society of London, the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow, the Royal Irish Academy, the American Optical Society, the American Mineralogical Society, the Zurich Physical Society, and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences), a foreign corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences ( 1947 ) [ 15] .
Active peace activist. Lenin Prize "For the consolidation of peace between peoples" ( 1957 ).
The Raman effect (1923) served as one of the strongest arguments in favor of the real existence of light quanta ( photons ).
In 1976, the International Astronomical Union named Raman Chandrasekhar Venkat crater on the visible side of the moon .
November 28, India celebrates the national day of science in honor of the discovery of Raman scattering on this day in 1928.
- Raman spectroscopy
- BNF identifier : Open Data Platform
- Committee of Historical and Scientific Works
- Sir Venkata Raman - Biographical . Nobel Peace Prize - Official website. Date of treatment November 6, 2013.
- Raman, Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata . Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (2007). Date of appeal September 11, 2007.
- Venkataraman, G. (1988) Journey into Light: Life and Science of CV Raman . Oxford University Press. ISBN 818532400X .
- https://www.famousscientists.org/cv-raman/ Raman's family were Brahmins, the Hindu caste of priests and scholars.
- The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930 Sir Venkata Raman , Official Nobel prize biography, nobelprize.org
- Prasar, Vigyan Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman A Legend of Modern Indian Science . Government of India. Date of treatment November 7, 2013. Archived November 10, 2013.
- This Month in Physics History February 1928: Raman scattering discovered APS News Archives February 2009 vol. 18 no.2
- Raman, Sir (Chandrashekhara) Venkata . - Oxford University Press, 2004.
- Profile of Raman Chandrasekhar Venkata on the official website of the RAS
- Khramov Yu. A. Raman Chandrasekhara Venkata // Physicists: Biographical Reference / Ed. A.I. Akhiezer . - Ed. 2nd, rev. and add. - M .: Nauka , 1983 .-- S. 227. - 400 p. - 200,000 copies. (per.)
- Raman (Raman) Chandrasekhara Venkata // Great Soviet Encyclopedia : [30 vol.] / Ch. ed. A.M. Prokhorov . - 3rd ed. - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969-1978.
- CV Raman centennial issue (neopr.) // Journal of the Indian Institute of Science. - 1988. - T. 68 , No. 11-12 .