Cobona is a village in the Sukhovsky rural settlement of the Kirov district of the Leningrad region .
|Subject of the federation||Leningrad region|
|History and geography|
|First mention||1500 year|
|Former names||Cobana, Kobono, Cabono|
|Timezone||UTC + 3|
|Population||▼ 97  people ( 2017 )|
|Telephone code||+7 81362|
It is first mentioned in the Vodskaya Pyatina Book of the Year 1500, as the village of Kobona on the river on the Kobona in the Gorodensky churchyard in Ladoga district  .
Then the village Row of Kobon above the lake above Ladoga, and in it the temple of Nikola Chudotvorets is mentioned in the Gorodensky churchyard in the Sentinel Book of the Vodskaya Pyatina Korely half of 1612  .
In 1726, the Staraya Ladoga Canal passed through Cobon . An intermediate exit to Lake Ladoga was pierced in Kobon , a gateway and a harbor were installed. Since then, the mouth of the river Kobona (Kobonka) is called the Kobonsky channel. Navigation along the Staroladozhsky Canal was opened in 1730 , it became part of the Vyshnevolotsky waterway .
In 1732, Kobon became the possession of the creator of the Ladoga Canal, Field Marshal Count Minich , who built here a wooden traveling palace for Empress Anna Ioannovna . During a ceremonial trip to the opening of the canal in May 1732, Anna Ivanovna rested in the Kobonsky Palace.
In August 1765, Empress Catherine II visited Kobon , but she did not stop at the palace, but at the stone guard house, which has survived to the present day (now it houses the recreation center “Kobona”  ). In Kobon, she stopped on the way back from Novaya Ladoga . In June 1785, Catherine again "had a procession" along the Ladoga Canal, heading from Vyshny Volochk to St. Petersburg . In Kobon, “ships came to the shore,” and the empress with her retinue dined.
In 1788, A. I. Musin-Pushkin , a statesman, a historian, and a collector of Russian antiquities, took possession of Kobon and discovered and published The Word about Igor's Regiment . Then Kobona with 399 souls of peasants was inherited by his son Ivan Alekseevich Musin-Pushkin, in the Petersburg house of which A.S. Pushkin visited the Karavannaya street .
Before the fire of 1815 in Kobon there was a wooden five-domed church with a wooden bell tower in the name of Sts. Nicholas, with the chapels of Peter and Paul.
In 1821 a new stone church was built in the name of St.. Nicholas, with the aisles of Peter and Paul and Paraskeva Pyatnitsa  .
On the map of the St. Petersburg province of F.F. Schubert in 1834, the village of Kobona on the Kabana River, consisting of 82 peasant households , is indicated  .
KOBANA - the village belongs to Count Musin-Pushkin, the number of inhabitants by audit: 197 m. P., 202 w. P.
In it: the stone church in the name of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker. (1838) 
According to the maps of F. F. Schubert in 1844 and S. S. Kutorgi in 1852, the village of Kobona consisted of 82 peasant households   .
KOBONA - the village of the heirs of Count Musin-Pushkin, along a country road, the number of households is 50, the number of souls is 113 m. (1856) 
In 1861, when the church collapsed and became cramped, the side chapels were removed, and the entire church was rebuilt according to the design of the architect MA Shurupov .  
KOBONO is a village owned by the Ladoga Canal, a lake and the Kobona River, the number of households is 50, the number of inhabitants is 202 m. P., 235 w. P.
Orthodox Church. Philistine station. Sawmill. (1862) 
According to the map from the “Historical Atlas of St. Petersburg Province” of 1863, the village was called Kabona , just like the river on which it was located. Two churches are designated on its northern and southern outskirts  .
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Staroladozhsky Canal became shallow and no longer approached the remaining links of the Mariinsky water system .
In 1866, a canal was dug closer to the shoreline of Lake Ladoga. The new channel, also passing through Cobon , was named Novoladozhsky . As the diocesan lists wrote: “The village of Kobona is located on the Ladoga Canal by the Kobona River, 150 trees from the Lake Ladoga, on a flat swampy place”  .
Navigation along the Staraya Ladoga Canal continued less intensively, and was completed only by 1940. The Novaya Ladoga Canal is still navigable.
The collection of the Central Statistical Committee described the village as follows:
KOBONO (KABONO) is a former owner's village at the Koboni River and the Imp. Peter I and Imp. Alexander II and Lake Ladoga, yards - 77, residents - 304; Volost government (60 miles away from the county town), Orthodox church, chapel, 6 shops, inn. (1885)  .
According to the statistics on the national economy of Novoladozhsky district in 1891, the estate in the village of Kobona with an area of 1,443 dessiatines belonged to Count I. A. Musin-Pushkin , the estate was acquired before 1868. A sawmill for 30 workers worked at the estate and there was a smithy at it  .
According to the first census of the Russian Empire :
KOBONA - a village, Orthodox - 518, men - 222, women - 297, both sexes - 519. (1897) 
In the XIX century, the village administratively belonged to the Kobon volost of the 1st camp of Novaya Ladoga district of St. Petersburg province, in the beginning of the XX century - the 4th camp.
According to the "Memorial Book of the St. Petersburg Province" for 1905, the village was called Kobono or Cabono by the Kaboni River  .
From 1917 to 1923, the village of Kobona was part of the Kobonsky village council of the Kobonsky volost of Novoladozhsky district.
Since 1923 - as a part of the Shumsky volost of the Volkhov district .
Since 1927 - as part of the Mginsky District  .
In 1929, the poorest peasants of Kobona organized a fishing artel, in November 1930 they decided to organize a fishing collective farm and called it the “Thirteenth Anniversary of October Revolution”  .
According to the data of 1933, the village of Kobona was the administrative center of the Kobonsky Village Council of the Mginsky District, which included 2 localities: the villages of Kobona and Lednevo , with a total population of 851 people  .
According to the data of 1936, the Kobonsky Village Council included 2 settlements, 145 farms and 2 collective farms  .
In the 1930s, the bells were removed from the Nikolskaya church, on November 1, 1937, the head priest, Archpriest James Chulkov, was arrested (shot December 14)  , and in 1938 the church was finally closed and converted into a warehouse.
In 1939 the Sig fishing collective farm was organized.
Since 1960 - as part of the Volkhov district .
In 1961, the population of the village of Kobona was 169 people  .
According to the data of 1966, the village of Kobona was the administrative center of the Kobonsky Village Council of the Volkhov District  .
According to the data of 1973, the village of Kobona was subordinated to the Kobonsky Village Council of the Volkhov District, the village Lavrovo was the administrative center of the village council  .
According to the 1990s, the village of Kobona was part of the Sukhovsky Village Council of the Kirovsky District  .
In 1997, 68 people lived in the village of Kobona of the Sukhovskaya volost, in 2002 - 133 people (Russian - 92%)   .
In 2007, 84 people were in the village of Kobona of the Sukhovsky JV  .
The village is located in the north-eastern part of the region on the shore of Lake Ladoga at the mouth of the Kobona River (Kobonka), at the intersection of it with the Staraya Ladoga and Novaya Ladoga canals, east of the city of Kirovsk and north of the P21 ( E 105 ) “Kola” federal highway.
The 41K-123 road passes through the village ( Lavrovo - Cobona - Sukhoi ). The distance to the administrative center of the settlement - the village of Sukhoi - 12 km  .
The distance to the nearest railway station Zhikharevo is 20 km  .
From St. Petersburg to Kobona can be reached by bus number 596 (seasonal), from Voybokalo by bus number 594, from Kirovsk by bus number 593  .
Road of Life
Kobona became known during the Great Patriotic War . Here was the famous Road of Life , which connected blockaded Leningrad with the Great Land. The Evacuation of the population, factories and plants took place along the Road of Life, food, fuel, reinforcements, weapons and ammunition were brought. During the navigation periods, shipments were carried out by water route on the ships of the Ladoga military flotilla and vessels of the North-West River Shipping Company from the ports of Novaya Ladoga (a large route of 125 km) and Kobona (a small route of 35 km) to the port of Osinovets ; during the freeze-up period, on the ice road by car from Kobona to Vaganov and Kokorev .
The first column of 60 cars with food left Kobona on the ice of Lake Ladoga to the blocked Leningrad on November 23, 1941 . In the winter of 1941–42, over 360 thousand tons of cargo, mainly foodstuffs and ammunition, were transported to Leningrad via Kobona, and about half a million people were evacuated from Leningrad. In the summer of 1942, the port of Kobono-Kareji was established. To the north of Kobona, eight half a kilometer long piers were built. A temporary railway line connecting Lake Ladoga with the Voybokalo station was brought here . From Osinovets to Kobona ferry operated for the transportation of locomotives and railway cars. A pipeline for fuel and an underground cable were installed along the bottom of Lake Ladoga for the transfer of electricity from the Volkhovskaya HPP to Leningrad. In the winter of 1942–1943, a highway on Ice of Lake Ladoga began to operate from Kobona to Osinovets.
The most notable attraction of Kobona is the stone church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker with a bell tower. During World War II, it was used as a temporary shelter for the evacuated residents of besieged Leningrad. After the war, not reconstructed and gradually decayed. In 1998, she was officially returned to the church community. Since 2000, acts as a courtyard of Holy Trinity Zelenetsky monastery .  Fully restored by 2003, including with the money of the Kobonians. The uniqueness of the church lies in the fact that this is a lighthouse church. In the XIX century crystal balls were mounted in the cross on the bell tower. They reflected the sun, and it served as a guide for fishermen  .
Also in the village there is a stele "Kobona", dedicated to the Road of Life (installed in 1964, architect M. N. Meisel, A. A. Yakovlev), and a memorial sign installed on the site of the house where the native Kobona lived, the poet Alexander Prokofiev . On the plate, standing under the birches, its lines are carved:
|Almost over the reach,|
Almost over the wave
planted by me.
On May 14, 2010, the two-story wooden house of the former school, where the Museum of the Roads of Life and the museum of the poet Alexander Prokofiev were located, burned down along with all the exhibits  . Only the stone basement of the building and the porch of Putilov limestone from the front facade have been preserved. However, by September 2015 the building was completely restored according to the drawings of the original. A permanent exhibition dedicated to the Road of Life has opened in the renovated building. More than 49.3 million rubles were spent from the regional budget on the restoration of the museum, the creation of the exposition and the accomplishment  .
Several sights of Kobona are protected by the state as cultural heritage sites.
Stella "Kobona", part of the "Green Belt of Glory of Leningrad" , is an object of cultural heritage of federal significance.
Objects of cultural heritage of regional significance:
- Memorial sign on the site of the house in which he was born and lived from 1900 to 1913. poet A. A. Prokofiev ;
- School, where he studied in the years 1908-1913. A. A. Prokofiev;
- The grave of A.P. Prokofiev (1873–1924), the father of the poet;
- The fraternal burial of Soviet soldiers and Leningraders who died in 1941-1943;
- The fraternal burial of border guards who died in 1941-1943.
Identified cultural heritage sites:
- St. Nicholas Church;
- The building of the former guard room of the Ladoga canal battalion;
- Granite shield bridge (northern discharge).
In addition, the identified objects of cultural heritage are the Staraya Ladoga and Novaya Ladoga Canal along their entire length  .
Guardhouse (at the present time - recreation center "Kobona")
Remains of old gravestones near the church
Kobonka River at the intersection with the Staraya Ladoga Canal
Granite bridge on the river Kobonka
The place where the house of A. A. Prokofiev was located
Novaya Ladoga Canal in Kobon
Restored school (museum) building
Photo by Prokudin-Gorsky
The US Library of Congress stores photographic plates and photographs taken by the famous Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorsky . Among them are three pictures that captured Kobon as it was in 1909    .
- Prokofiev, Alexander Andreevich - Soviet poet.
Road of Life, Kobona River Embankment, Novaya Ladoga Canal 1st line, Novaya Ladoga Canal 2nd line, Novaya Ladoga Canal 3rd line, Novaya Ladoga Canal 4th line, Staro Ladoga Canal 1st line, Staraya Ladoga Canal 2nd line [38 ] .
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