Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin (January 13 ( 25 ), 1832 , Elabuga , Vyatka Province , Russian Empire - March 20 ( April 1 ), 1898 , St. Petersburg , Russian Empire ) - an outstanding Russian landscape painter , painter , draftsman and engraver . The representative of the Dusseldorf School of Art .
|Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin|
|rus doref. Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin|
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|Ranks||Academician IAH (1865)|
Professor IAH (1873)
|Awards||pension IAH (1861)|
Academician (1865), professor (1873), head of landscape workshop (1894–1895) of the Imperial Academy of Arts .
Ivan Shishkin was born on January 13 ( 25 ), 1832 in the city of Elabuga [Komm 1] . It was descended from the ancient Vyatka family of the Shishkin, the son of a merchant, a valet, Ivan Vasilyevich Shishkin (1792-1872)  .
At the age of 12 he was appointed to the 1st Kazan male gymnasium, but having reached it in the fifth grade, he left school and returned home to Elabuga, where he lived for four years. In 1852 he entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture , where he studied until 1856. In April 1855 Shishkin’s student etude “Pine on the Rock” acquired the State Russian Museum . After graduating from the school course, from 1857 he continued his education at the Imperial Academy of Arts , where, along with Gina , Dzhongin and others, he was registered as a student of the portrait-portrait S. Vorobyov . Not content with classes at the Academy, he diligently painted and wrote sketches from nature in the vicinity of St. Petersburg and on Valaam Island, thanks to which he gained ever greater acquaintance with nature and the ability to accurately convey it with a pencil and brush. Already in the first year of their stay at the Academy, Shishkin was awarded two small silver medals: for the painting "View in the vicinity of St. Petersburg" (1856) and for drawings made in Dubki in the summer. In 1858 he received a large silver medal for the sketch “Pine on Valaam”, in 1859 - a small gold medal for a landscape from the outskirts of St. Petersburg and, finally, in 1860 - a large gold medal for two paintings of the same name “View on the island of Valaam . Kukko Terrain.
Having acquired with this last award the right to travel abroad as a pensioner of the Academy , he went to Munich in 1861, where he visited the workshops of renowned artists Benno and Franz Adamov , who enjoyed great popularity of animal painters. In 1863, Shishkin moved to Zurich , where, under the leadership of Professor R. Koller , who was then considered one of the best animal depicters, he copied and wrote the latter from nature. In Zurich I tried to engrave for the first time with “ royal vodka ”. From here he made an excursion to Geneva in order to familiarize himself with the works of F. Dide and A. Calam , and then moved to Düsseldorf and wrote there, commissioned by collector N. Bykov, "View in the vicinity of Düsseldorf" - a picture for which he assigned to the Imperial Academy of Arts title of academician. Abroad, in addition to painting, he dealt with many drawings with a pen , which surprised foreigners, and some of his drawings were placed in the Dusseldorf Museum next to drawings by first-class European masters, such as A. Achenbach and K.F. Lessing.
Having missed his fatherland, in 1866 he returned to St. Petersburg before the expiration of his pensionership. Since then, he often traveled for artistic purposes in Russia, almost annually exhibiting his works at the Academy. After the Association of Traveling Exhibitions was established, he exhibited his drawings at his exhibitions with a pen. Since 1870, having joined the circle of aquaportists formed in St. Petersburg, he again began to study engraving with “royal vodka”, which he never left until the end of his life, devoting almost as much time to this as painting. Every year, all these works strengthened his reputation as one of the best Russian landscape painters and unmatched aquaportist. He owned a manor in the village of Vyra (now the Gatchina District of the Leningrad Region ).
In 1873, the Academy of Arts awarded Shishkin the title of professor for the painting “Forest Wilderness” acquired from him. After the new charter of the Academy came into effect, in 1892, Shishkin was invited to lead her educational landscape workshop , but for various reasons he did not hold this position for long. He died suddenly in St. Petersburg on March 8 (20), 1898 , sitting at the easel in front of a new painting. He was buried at the Smolensk Orthodox cemetery  . In 1950, the artist’s ashes were carried along with the monument to the Tikhvin cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.
Among Russian landscape painters Shishkin, undoubtedly, belongs to the place of the most powerful artist. In all his works  he is an amazing connoisseur of plant forms, reproducing them with a subtle understanding of both the general nature and the smallest distinctive features of any species of trees, bushes and grasses. Whether he took a picture of a pine or spruce forest, individual pines and firs, just like their combination, received from him their true physiognomy, without any embellishment or understatement, - that kind with those particulars that are fully explained and conditioned soil and climate, where the artist forced them to grow. Whether he depicted oaks or birches, they took from him utterly true forms in the foliage, branches, trunks, roots and in all details. The terrain itself under the trees — stones, sand or clay, soil irregularities, overgrown with ferns and other forest herbs, dry leaves, brushwood, deadwood, etc. — received Shishkin's paintings and drawings in the form of perfect reality.
“But this realism often harmed his landscapes: in many of them she obscured the general mood, told them the nature of not paintings, conceived not with the aim to excite one or another feeling in the viewer, but random, though excellent sketches. It should also be noted that Shishkin repeated what happens with almost any particularly strong artist: the science of form was given to him to the detriment of his coloring, which, not being weak and inharmonious, still does not stand on the same level with the masterful drawing. Therefore, Shishkin's talent is sometimes much more vividly expressed in monochrome drawings and etchings than in works in which he used many colors, ”some critics say. His paintings and drawings are so numerous that even pointing out the most important ones would take up too much space; especially many of them dispersed among art lovers after a retrospective exhibition of the artist's works organized in 1891 for forty years of his activities and sales after his death what was left in his studio. Suffice it to mention Shishkinsky works in public collections. Moscow Tretyakov Gallery is richer by them. It contains such paintings as “Forest cutting” (1867), “Midday in the vicinity of Moscow”, “Pine forest”, “Burned forest”, “ Rye ”, “Debris”, “Apiary”, “Spruce forest” and “ Morning in the pine forest ", as well as seventeen workshop drawings. The Russian Museum owns the following paintings: “Ship Grove”, “Glade with Pines”, “Forest Wilderness” and “Polyana”, five sketches and two drawings. The Moscow Public Museum received, according to the will of K. Soldatenkov , the painting "View in the vicinity of Moscow" and one drawing. The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg has many paintings, including: “View in the vicinity of St. Petersburg” (1856), “View in the vicinity of Düsseldorf” (1856), “Teutoburg Forest” (1865), “For mushrooms” (1870), “A creek in a birch forest” (1889), “At the coast of the Gulf of Finland (Udrias near Narva)” (1889), “Krestovsky Island submerged in fog”, etc.
In addition, the paintings are in other galleries and museums: in the Ryazan State Regional Art Museum. I.P. Pozhatatin (“Edge of the Forest”, 1890), in the Vyatka Art Museum. V.M. and A.M. Vasnetsov (“The Tops of the Pines”, 1890s), in the Nizhny Tagil Municipal Museum of Fine Arts, Sverdlovsk Region (portrait “Italian boy”, end of the XIX century), in the National Art Museum “Kiev Art Gallery” "(" View on the island of Valaam. Sketch ", 1858;" Twilight. Sunset ", 1874;" First Snow ", 1875," Felled Tree ", 1875;" Stream in the Forest ", 1880;" Preserve. Pine Forest " , 1881; "Among the valley of equal ...", 1881; "The Holy Key near Elabuga", 1886; "Oak Grove", 1887; "Sands", 1887; "Burel", 1888), in the Samara Regional Art Museum (“Glade in the Forest”, 1889), in the State Museum of Fine Arts of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan (“Near a Dacha”, 1894; “Swiss Landscape”, 1866; “On Mowing in an Oak Grove”, 1874; “Landscape with a Lake” , 1886, Lesnaya Polyana [Polyanka], 1897), in the Museum of Art, Nizhny Novgorod (“Kama near Elabugi”, 1895), in the Taganrog Picture Gallery (“Forest before a Thunderstorm”, 1872), in Perm Art Gallery (“Pine on Vaalam Etude ", 1858," Golden Autumn ", 1888), in the Astrakhan Art Gallery. B. M. Kustodiev ("Noon. Moscow outskirts. Bratsevo", 1866) and others.
Shishkin was a professional engraver who performed according to D. Rovinsk 's research, about 100 etchings , 68 original lithographs and 15 zincography .
Shishkin created his first etching in 1853, when he studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. In 1863, he fluently familiarized himself with the technique of etching by Rudolf Koller (Switzerland), and systematically began working in this technique from the end of the 1860s. In 1871, Shishkin joined the Society of Russian Aquaportists, created by A.I. Somov. In addition to the usual needle, Shishkin used soft varnish, aquatint , dry needle. In 1861, several sheets of the artist’s lithographs were printed in the Russian Art Album along with the lithographs by V. G. Perov, A. N. Volkov, N. P. Petrov. In 1868, “Etudes from life with a feather on a stone” were published with six lithographs. In May 1873, Shishkin prepared and himself published an album “Engravings on Copper with Strong Vodka by I. I. Shishkin” (title page and 10 etchings), issued as a prize from the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of Arts . The etchings of this album are etched, aquatint, tape measure. In the 1870s, Shishkin conducted a series of experiments of zincography - “convex etching”  . In 1878, Shishkin published his second album, “25 engravings on copper by I. I. Shishkin,” which his friend, landscape painter I. V. Volkovsky, helped him prepare in print.
In 1884–85, A. Beggrov published in two series a collection of 24 photo-typed pictures from coal drawings made for him by Shishkin. In 1886, the artist released the third album “Etchings by I. I. Shishkin. 1885–1886 ”consisting of 26 absolutely new engravings. Subsequently, prints from the boards that served for this album, corrected and somewhat modified, were published by Marx (with the addition of several other etchings) as a new album. The last album “60 etchings of Professor Iv. Ive Shishkin "was published in December 1894.
In the 1880s, Shishkin created many paintings, in the plots of which he still appeals mainly to the life of the Russian forest, Russian meadows and fields, however, affecting such motives as the seashore of the Baltic . The main features of his art persist even now, but the artist does not remain motionless in the creative positions developed by the end of the seventies. Such canvases as “The stream in the forest (On a slope)” (1880), “The Reserve. Pine Forest ”(1881),“ Pine Forest ”(1885),“ In the Pine Forest ”(1887) and others are similar in nature to the work of the previous decade. However, they are interpreted with greater scenic freedom. In the best landscapes of Shishkin of this time, the tendencies common to the Russian fine art reflected by him in their own way are reflected. The artist is enthusiastically working on large-scale, epic-style paintings glorifying the expanses of his native land. Now everything is more tangible than his desire to transfer the state of nature, the expression of images, the purity of the palette. In many works, tracing color and light gradations, Shishkin uses the principles of tonal painting .
Among all the works of the artist's most popular painting " Morning in a pine forest ." Its plot may have been prompted by Shishkin, KA Savitsky . There is another version that the impetus to the appearance of this canvas was the landscape “Fog in the Pine Forest” (1888), written, in all likelihood, as “Burel”, under the impression of a trip to the Vologda forests. “Fog in the Pine Forest”, which had a success at a traveling exhibition in Moscow (now in a private collection), could have caused Shishkin and Savitsky to write a canvas repeating the motif of the famous picture, but with the inclusion of the genre scene.
- Order of St. Stanislav III degree (1867) - for the painting "View in the vicinity of Düsseldorf".
- Gold Medal of the First All-Russian Exhibition of Printing Business (St. Petersburg) - for merits in the field of drawing graphics.
“Morning in a Pine Forest”: From Panel to Wrap
The idea of the painting “Morning in a Pine Forest” originated in Shishkin when he visited the island of Gordoml on Lake Seliger, a territory untouched by human civilization. Initially, the panel impressive size (139 × 213 cm), there were no bears. However, the artist K.A. Savitsky, who knew Shishkin well, proposed to supplement the picture with figures of living beings - bears. At the request of Shishkin, who has some doubts in his abilities as an animalist, Savitsky depicted a family of wild animals, playing carelessly between the roots and trunks of fallen pines, making the picture more dynamic. Before the purchase of the picture by P. M. Tretyakov, it was signed by two artists: I. I. Shishkin and K. A. Savitsky. After the purchase, Tretyakov erased Savitsky's signature from the picture.
At the end of the 1880s, the head of the famous candy factory Ferdinand Theodor von Einem (after the nationalization of “Red October”) decided to give one of the products a formal look and entrusted Emmanuel Andreev to create a beautiful wrapper. With the owner of the painting "Morning in a Pine Forest" they signed a contract, thereby obtaining the opportunity to make a copy from the masterpiece. The factory produced the first batch of candies “Mishka Kosolapy” at the beginning of the 1890s. Candies received the highest distinction at the All-Russian Industrial and Art Fair in Nizhny Novgorod (1896), and in 1900 won the Grand Prix at the World Exhibition in Paris.
- The first wife (from 10.28 / 1868) Evgenia Alexandrovna Vasilyeva  (1847–1874). Her brother is a landscape painter Fyodor Vasilyev . In this marriage, Shishkin had three children: sons Vladimir (1871–1873) and Konstantin (1873–1875), who died in infancy, and daughter Lydia (1869–1931)  . Shishkin portrayed his wife in two scenes: “The Lady with the Dog” (1868) and “Before the Mirror. For reading the letter "(1870).
- The second wife Lagoda-Shishkina, Olga Antonovna (1850–1881) was a landscape painter, a student of Shishkin  . On June 21, 1881, their daughter, Xenia, was born. After her mother’s death, her sister, Victoria Antonovna Lagoda, was raised by her mother.
Addresses in St. Petersburg
- 1880–1882 — 5th line of Vasilyevsky Island, 10;
- 1882 - 3/8/1989 - 5th line, 30, profitable house of I. N. Schmidt.
In Yelabuga, a monument to I. I. Shishkin has been erected, since 1962 the Memorial House-Museum of I. I. Shishkin  has been operating, next to which are located the Shishkin ponds, founded by the father of I. I. Shishkin. Name Shishkin named Children's Art School № 1 and the street.
A number of streets in various cities of Russia are named in honor of I. I. Shishkin.
In the USSR and the Russian Federation , marks were issued repeatedly that marked the anniversary dates of I. I. Shishkin and reproduced his works.
50 years since the death of I. I. Shishkin. I. N. Kramskoy . Portrait of the artist Ivan Shishkin. USSR, 1948, ( CFA (ITC) # 1264; Mi # 1220) .
I.I. Shishkin. " Rye ". USSR, 1948, ( CFA (ITC) # 1265; Mi # 1221) .
I.I. Shishkin. " Morning in a pine forest ." USSR, 1948, ( CFA (ITC) # 1266; Mi # 1222) .
I. N. Kramskoy. Portrait of the artist Ivan Shishkin. USSR, 1948, ( CFA (ITC) # 1267; Mi # 1223) .
V International Congress on the Protection of Forests. Painting I. Shishkin "Ship Grove". USSR, 1960, ( Central Federal District (ITC) # 2466; Mi # 2384) .
I.I. Shishkin. " Pine Forest ". USSR, 1971, ( CFA (ITC) # 4058; Mi # 3935) .
175 years since the birth of I. I. Shishkin. I. N. Kramskoy. Portrait of the artist Ivan Shishkin. Russia, 2007, ( CFA (ITC) # 1160; Mi # 1392) .
И. И. Шишкин. «На севере диком…» Россия, 2007 год, ( ЦФА (ИТЦ) #1161; Mi #1393) .
«Сторожка в лесу»,
1878, Национальный музей искусств Азербайджана
« Рожь »,
«На опушке соснового леса»,
1882, Львовская галерея искусств
«Ручей в берёзовом лесу»,
«Сосна на песке»,
« Утро в сосновом лесу »,
«Дождь в дубовом лесу»,
« На севере диком… »,
«После шторма в Мери-Хови»,
- Годом рождения И. И. Шишкина считается 1832-й год — на основании записи отца (РГАЛИ. — Ф. 917. — Оп. 1. — Ед. хр. 68. — Л. 22об. по книге Трёхсотлетнее древо Ивана Ивановича Шишкина ). Ряд документов указывают иное: «Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона» даёт 1831-й; а в метрической книге о втором венчании Шишкина в 1880-м году указано, что 28 сентября 1880 года ему было 45 лет, то есть годом рождения следует считать 1835-й.
- Шишкин Иван Иванович // Большая советская энциклопедия : [в 30 т.]
- В. К. Магницкий. Иван Васильевич Шишкин, гражданин Елабуги // Календарь Вятской губернии на 1893 год. Отдел III-й. Исторические сведения. — Вятка: Издание Губернского статистического комитета, 1892. — С. 396—410 .
- Могила на плане кладбища (№ 61) // Отдел IV // Весь Петербург на 1914 год, адресная и справочная книга г. С.-Петербурга / Ред. А. П. Шашковский. - SPb. : Т-во А. С. Суворина – «Новое время», 1914. — ISBN 5-94030-052-9 .
- Шишкин Иван Иванович: картины . Крымская художественная галерея .
- Сомов А. И. Шишкин как гравёр // Вестник изящных искусств. - SPb. , 1883. — Т. 1 , вып. 1 .
- Метрическая запись о венчании в Екатерининской церкви при Императорской Академии художеств
- Л. И. Шишкина была замужем за крупным землевладельцем Б. Н. Ридингером , которому принадлежал парк близ « Пенат ».
- Метрическая запись о венчании в церкви при Императорской Академии художеств
- Мемориальный дом-музей И. И. Шишкина
- Шишкин, Иван Иванович // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона : в 86 т. (82 т. и 4 доп.). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Ф. Булгаков «Альбом русской живописи. Картины и рисунки И. И. Ш.» — СПб., 1892
- А. Пальчиков «Перечень печатных листов И. И. Ш.» — СПб., 1885
- Ровинский Д. А. «Подробный словарь русских граверов XVI—XIX вв.» Т. II. — СПб., 1885
- И. И. Шишкин. «Переписка. Дневник. Современники о художнике». — Л., Искусство, 1984. — 478 с., 20 л. илл., портрет. - 50 000 copies
- В. Манин . Иван Шишкин. — М.: Белый город, 2008. — С. 47. — ISBN 5-7793-1060-2
- И. Шувалова Иван Иванович Шишкин. — СПб.: Художники России, 1993
- Ф. Мальцева Мастера русского пейзажа: Вторая половина XIX века. — М.: Искусство, 1999
- Галина Чурак. «ЖАНР» ИВАНА ШИШКИНА. Поиски и находки // « Третьяковская галерея ». — № 1 (26). — 2010
- Галина Чурак. «Природу нужно искать во всей её простоте…» — «Третьяковская галерея». — № 4 (17). — 2007
- Малоизвестные факты из жизни И. И. Шишкина // Газета «Новая Неделя». — вып. от 17.01.2014 г.
- S. N. Kondakov. Anniversary reference book of the Imperial Academy of Arts. 1764-1914 . — Спб.: Товарищество Р.Голике и А.Вильборг, 1915. — Т. 2. — С. 224. — 454 с.
- Иван Иванович Шишкин. Биография, переписка, творчество и картины художника
- Все эскизы и картины Ивана Ивановича Шишкина
- Шишкин, Иван Иванович в библиотеке «Старатель»
- Шишкин Иван Иванович — Биография, статьи, 346 картин
- Картины Ивана Ивановича Шишкина
- Иван Шишкин, галерея картин на WikiPaintings
- Шишкин Иван Иванович. Галерея картин художника, хронология его жизни и творчества
- Биография и 57 картин Ивана Ивановича Шишкина
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- Галерея работ Шишкина И. И.